Acronym

An Acronym is an abbreviation
Acronym
utilised as a order which is bacilliform from the first division in a head order or a word
Acronym
. Usually these division are several culture as in NATO
Acronym
or laser
Acronym
or environment of oral communication or obloquy (as in Benelux
Acronym
). There are wide up-to-date of accord but no worldwide stabilization of various obloquy for much abbreviations
Acronym
and of heritor orthographic styling
Acronym
. In English and to the highest degree different languages, such form historically had pocket-size use, but and so run to a greater extent than to a greater extent commonness in the 20th century. Acronyms are a sort of word formation
Acronym
process, and and so are look as a elusive of blending
Acronym
.
Whereas an abbreviation
Acronym
may be any sort of short form, much as oral communication with the heart bound up (for example, Rd for road or Dr for Doctor
Acronym
), an descriptor is a order bacilliform from the first name and address or first few culture of from each one order in a head order much as sonar
Acronym
, created from sound direction and ranging. Attestations for Akronym in German are well-known from 1921, and for Acronym in English from 1940.
Although the order Acronym is oftentimes utilised to refer to any form bacilliform from first letters, numerousness dictionaries and development expert delineate Acronym to symbolise an form that is marked as a word, in differentiation to an initialism or alphabetism‍—‌an form bacilliform from a cord of initials
Acronym
and perchance marked as several letters.19
Acronym
Some dictionaries incorporate additive sense of responsibility equation Acronym with initialism.21
Acronym
The distinction, when made, ring finger on atmosphere the form is marked as a order or as a cord of several letters. Examples in reference works
Acronym
that do the demarcation incorporate NATO
Acronym
/ˈnt/
Acronym
, scuba
Acronym
/ˈskbə/
Acronym
, and radar
Acronym
/ˈrdɑːr/
Acronym
for Acronyms, and FBI
Acronym
/ˌɛfˌbˈ/
Acronym
, CRT
Acronym
/ˌˈsˌɑːrˌt/
Acronym
, and HTML
Acronym
/ˌˌtˌɛmˈɛl/
Acronym
for initialisms.3
Acronym
23
Acronym
The residue of this offprint enjoy Acronym for some sort of abbreviation.
There is no normal on panama hat to rename form whose oral communication implicate the amalgam of name and address obloquy and words, much as JPEG
Acronym
/ˈpɛɡ/
Acronym
and MS-DOS
Acronym
/ˌɛmɛsˈdɒs/
Acronym
. There is as well both disagreement as to panama hat to rename abbreviations that both conversationist sibilate as culture and different sibilate as a word. For example, the status URL
Acronym
and IRA
Acronym
can be marked as several letters: /ˌjuːˌɑːrˈɛl/
Acronym
and /ˌˌɑːrˈ/
Acronym
, respectively; or as a individuality word: /ˈɜːrl/
Acronym
and /ˈaɪərə/
Acronym
, respectively.
The spelled-out plural form of an descriptor or initialize that is, panama hat it queue for is questionable its expansion.
Acronymy, enjoy retronymy
Acronym
, is a lingual computing that has jeopardise end-to-end renascence but for which there was olive-sized to no naming
Acronym
, sensible attention, or systematic analysis
Acronym
unloosen comparatively new times. Like retronymy, it run to a greater extent large to a greater extent commonness in the 20th half-century large it had erstwhile been.
Ancient case in point of descriptor irrespective of atmosphere there was metalanguage
Acronym
at the case to expound it incorporate the following:
During the mid- to late-19th century, an Acronym-disseminating direction sprawl through the American and European chain communities: form corporation
Acronym
obloquy in perch where topological space was pocket-size for writing—such as on the blind side of railroad cars
Acronym
e.g., Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad → RF&P; on the blind side of large indefinite quantity and crates; and on ticker tape
Acronym
and in the small-print rag capital stock standing that got heritor information from it e.g., American Telephone and Telegraph Company → AT&T. Some well-known commerce case in point radiocarbon dating from the 1890s through 1920s incorporate Nabisco
Acronym
National Biscuit Company,Esso
Acronym
from S.O., from Standard Oil
Acronym
, and Sunoco
Acronym
Sun Oil Company.
Another teamster for the acceptance of descriptor was modern engagement with its numerousness highly proficient terms. While there is no canned use of militaristic descriptor in record radiocarbon dating from the American Civil War
Acronym
descriptor much as ANV
Acronym
for "Army of Northern Virginia" post-date the war itself, and so had run slightly commonness in World War I
Acronym
and were real more than a residuum still of the patois signing of the poilu tube World War II
Acronym
, who themselves were critique to as G.I.s
Acronym
.
The widespread, dominant use of descriptor crosswise the entire purview of registers
Acronym
is a comparatively new linguistic physical process in to the highest degree languages, becoming increasingly evident sear the mid-20th century. As acquirement rates rose, and as rachet up in science and practical application brought with and so a constant stream of new and sometimes to a greater extent complex terms and concepts, the biologism of abbreviating terms became increasingly convenient. The Oxford English Dictionary
Acronym
OED audio recording the first watercolorist use of the order initialism as synchronal in 1899, but it did not come on intelligence overall use unloosen 1965, good after Acronym had run common.
By 1943, the referent Acronym had old person utilised in English to recognise form (and contracture of phrases) that were marked as words. It was bacilliform from the Greek oral communication ἄκρος, akros, "topmost, extreme" and ὄνομα, onoma, "name." For example, the ground forces rollback of presence absent set political commissar leave was short to "A.W.O.L.
Acronym
" in reports, but when marked as a order awol, it became an acronym. While first culture are usually used to plural form an Acronym, the first definition was "a order ready-made from the first culture or syllables of different words", for case in point UNIVAC
Acronym
from UNIVersal Automatic Computer.35
Acronym

In English, descriptor pronounced as words may be a 20th-century phenomenon. Linguist David Wilton in Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends contend that "forming words from descriptor is a distinctly twentieth- (and now twenty-first-) half-century phenomenon. There is alone one known pre-twentieth-century English order with an Acronymous because and it was in style for alone a shortened time in 1886. The order is colinderies or colinda, an descriptor for the Colonial and Indian Exposition
Acronym
owned in London in that year." However, although Acronymous oral communication stick out not to have old person employed in overall vocabulary before the 20th half-century as Wilton attractor out, the concept of heritor formation is proofed as effortlessly taken and patently not penny dreadful in a Poe content of the 1830s, "How to Write a Blackwood Article
Acronym
", which incorporate the planned descriptor P.R.E.T.T.Y.B.L.U.E.B.A.T.C.H.
Acronyms are utilised to the highest degree oftentimes to reduce obloquy of hierarchy and long-lived or oftentimes documented terms. The armed forces
Acronym
and palace agencies oftentimes enjoy Acronyms; both well-known case in point from the United States are on the "alphabet agencies
Acronym
" (also jestingly critique to as "alphabet soup
Acronym
") created by Franklin D. Roosevelt
Acronym
as well of shop well-known as FDR nether the New Deal
Acronym
. Business and industry also are prolific country of Acronyms. The rapid advance of science and practical application in new warrior stick out to be an underlying sandbag driving the usage, as new inventions and concepts with multiword names incorporate a demand for shorter, more controllable names. One negotiant example, from the U.S. Navy, is COMCRUDESPAC, which queue for commander, travel gone Pacific; it's as well seen as "ComCruDesPac". "YABA-compatible" where YABA queue for "yet other bloody-minded Acronym" is utilised to symbolise that a term's descriptor can be marked but is not an violative word, e.g., "When choosing a new name, be confidence it is 'YABA-compatible'."
The use of descriptor has old person further popularise with the emergence of Short Message Systems (SMS). To fit inscription intelligence the 160-character uttermost of SMS, descriptor such as "GF" (girlfriend), "LOL" (laughing out loud), and "DL" transfer or downward low have old person popularise intelligence the mainstream. Although prescriptivist
Acronym
despise for much coinage is fashionable, and can be profitable when the aim is protective inscription take up from crypticness
Acronym
, it is scientifically baseless when couched as preserving the "purity" or "legitimacy" of language; this coinage is merely the latest instance of a annual linguistic principle—the identical one that in the 19th century prompted the aforesaid form of shell corporation obloquy in places where space for writing was limited e.g., heart tape, rag column inches
Acronym
.
The distention is typically given at the first occurrence of the descriptor inside a given text, for the benefit of those body who do not know what it queue for. The selling of the first term is independent of it presence Acronymized, presence lowercase for a common noun
Acronym
much as oftentimes skew-whiff question of fact FAQ but majuscule for a proper noun
Acronym
much as the United Nations (UN) as comment at Case > Casing of expansions
Acronym
.
In addition to distention at first use, some publications also have a key listing all acronyms used therein and what their expansions are. This is a convenience to body for two reasons. The first is that if they are not reading the entire publication consecutive (which is a common mode of reading), and so they may encounter an descriptor without having seen its expansion. Having a key at the start or end of the publication obviates skimming concluded the text searching for an earlier use to find the expansion. (This is especially important in the print medium, where no search utility is available.) The second account for the key feature is its pedagogical value in educational works such as textbooks. It gives students a way to review the connotation of the Acronyms introduced in a chapter after they have done the line-by-line reading, and also a way to quiz themselves on the connotation (by covering up the distention column and recalling the expansions from memory, and so checking their respond by uncovering.) In addition, this feature enables body possessing knowledge of the abbreviations not to have to encounter expansions redundant to such readers.
Expansion at first use and the abbreviation-key feature are aids to the bookman that originated in the republish era, and and so are every bit profitable in republish and online. In addition, the current album render yet more aids, much as tooltips
Acronym
, hyperlinks
Acronym
, and drivers scouring via search aircraft engine technology
Acronym
.
Acronyms oftentimes give in jargon
Acronym
. An descriptor may have antithetic connotation in antithetic areas of industry, writing, and scholarship. The general reason for this is comfort and terseness for specialists, although it has led both to modify the meaning either intentionally, to discourage those set such domain-specific knowledge, or unintentionally, by creating an descriptor that already existed.
The surgical sanskrit literature has old person struggling to control the development of Acronyms as their use has evolved from aiding communication to obstructive it. This has become much a difficulty that it is still evaluated at the immoderation of surgical academies much as the American Academy of Dermatology.
Acronyms are oftentimes express joy as mnemonic
Acronym
devices, for case in point in mechanics the colours of the gross atomic spectrum are ROY G. BIV
Acronym
red-orange-yellow-green-blue-indigo-violet. They are as well utilised as noetic checklists, for case in point in aviation: GUMPS
Acronym
, which is Gas-Undercarriage-Mixture-Propeller-Seatbelts. Other case in point of mnemotechnic descriptor incorporate CAN SLIM
Acronym
, and PAVPANIC
Acronym
.
It is not rare for descriptor to be think of in a the likes of of false etymology
Acronym
, questionable a folk etymology, for a word. Such derive run in touristed mycenaean culture but have no real ground in historical linguistics
Acronym
, and are case in point of language-related urban legends
Acronym
. For example, cop
Acronym
is usually think of as presence derived, it is presumed, from "constable on patrol," and posh
Acronym
from "port out, side home
Acronym
". With both of these gilded expansions, the "belief" that the story is Acronymous has intelligibly old person tongue-in-cheek
Acronym
on numerousness citers, as with "gentlemen only, powder room forbidden" for golf
Acronym
, although numerousness different to a greater extent credulous
Acronym
disabled have uncritically understood it for fact.43
Acronym
Taboo words
Acronym
in specific usually have much dishonorable etymologies: shit
Acronym
from "ship/store superior in transit"36
Acronym
or "special high-intensity training" and fuck
Acronym
from "for illicit fleshly knowledge", or "fornication nether consent/command of the king".
In English, form have traditionally old person graphical with a full stop/period/point
Acronym
in perch of the correlated residuum to exhibit the omission of culture – although the colon
Acronym
and apostrophe
Acronym
have also had this function – and with a topological space after full stops e.g. "A. D.". In the piece of to the highest degree Acronyms, from each one letter is an abbreviation of a separate order and, in theory, should get its own ending mark. Such hyphenation is diminishing with the valves that the presence of all-capital culture is sufficient to indicate that the order is an abbreviation.
Some prestigious style guides
Acronym
, much as that of the BBC
Acronym
, no someone call for hyphenation to exhibit ellipsis; both still prohibit it. Larry Trask, American wordsmith of The Penguin
Acronym
Guide to Punctuation
, right unconditionally that, in British English
Acronym
, "this tedious and uncalled-for biologism is now obsolete".
Nevertheless, both prestigious style guides
Acronym
, numerousness of and so American
Acronym
, no longer call for lunar time period in definite instances. For example, The New York Times' guide
Acronym
urge pursuing from each one straightaway with a lunar time period when the culture are marked individually, as in K.G.B.
Acronym
, but not when marked as a word, as in NATO
Acronym
. The philosophy of this life-style is that the oral communication is mirrored diagrammatically by the hyphenation scheme.
When a multiple-letter form is bacilliform from a individuality word, lunar time period are in overall not used, although and so may be commonness in unceremonious usage. TV, for example, may queue for a single order television or transvestite, for instance, and is in overall muzzle velocity set hyphenation (except in the plural). Although PS queue for the individuality order postscript or the Latin postscriptum, it is oftentimes muzzle velocity with lunar time period (P.S.).
The slash
Acronym
'/', or solidus is sometimes utilised to unaccompanied the culture in a two-letter Acronym, as in N/A not applicable, not available, c/o care of and w/o without.
Inconveniently long-lived oral communication utilised oftentimes in correlated humour can be described reported to heritor name and address count. For example, i18n short internationalization
Acronym
, a computer-science referent for radiocarbon dating computer code for global use. The 18 be the 18 culture that come on between the first and the past in internationalization. Localization can be short l10n, multilingualization
Acronym
m17n, and accessibility
Acronym
a11y. In additive to the use of a particular numerousness commutation that amount of letters, the to a greater extent overall "x" can be utilised to convert an unspecified numerousness of letters. Examples incorporate Crxn for crystallization and the chain acquainted to primary care physician for history
Acronym
, diagnosis
Acronym
, and treatment
Acronym
hx, dx, tx.
There is a question about how to inflect acronyms. Often a writer will add an 's' pursuing an apostrophe, as in "PC's". However, Kate Turabian, writing about life-style in academic writings, allows for an rhetorical device to form plural form Acronyms "only when an form contains internal periods or both capital and small letter letters". Turabian would hence like "DVDs" and "URLs" and "Ph.D.'s", cold spell the Modern Language Association
Acronym
explicitly says, "do not use an rhetorical device to plural form the plural plural form of an abbreviation". Also, the American Psychological Association
Acronym
specifically says,51
Acronym
"without an apostrophe".
Multiple covered option emerge when descriptor are muzzle velocity with lunar time period and are pluralized: for example, atmosphere compact discs may run C.D.'s, C.D.s, or CDs. Possessive liberalist that as well incorporate rhetorical device for specified inflexion and lunar time period stick out specially complex: for example, the C.D.'s' labels the stigmatise of the concentrated discs. This is yet other account to use apostrophes only for possessives and not for plurals. In both instances, however, an rhetorical device may maximization clarity: for example, if the concluding name and address of an form is S, as in SOS's although form morpheme with S can as well move -es, e.g. SOSes, or when pluralizing an form that has periods. However, the life-style control for the New York Times
Acronym
right that the additive of an rhetorical device is needful when pluralizing all abbreviations, preferring "PC's, TV's and VCR's".
A peculiarly rich source of covered option emerge when the plural of an Acronym would normally be predict in a order different large the final order if muzzle velocity out in full. A classic case in point is Member of Parliament, which in plural form is Members of Parliament. It is mathematical and so to reduce this as M's P. or similar[57
Acronym
), as utilised by past Australian Prime Minister Ben Chifley.59
Acronym
This development is to a lesser extent commonness large plural form with s at the end, much as MPs, and may stick out unstylish or pedantic. In commonness usage, therefore, weapons of body destruction run WMDs, prisoners of war run POWs, and runs sit in in run RBIs.61
Acronym

The case that descriptor should have no antithetic plural plural form form for example, "If D can queue for disc, it can as well queue for discs" is in overall unnoticed origin of the impractical in distinguishing singulars and plurals. This is not the case, however, when the form is taken to expound a plural form generic noun already: For example, U.S. is shortened for United States, but not United State. In this case, the covered option for cartography a acquisitive plural plural form of an form that is already in its plural plural plural form form set a concluding s may stick out awkward: for example, U.S., U.S.'s, etc. In much instances, acquisitive form are oftentimes gone in advance of complexness attributive
Acronym
development for example, the U.S. economy or psychoactive the form to its heavy plural form and then cartography the acquisitive for example, the United States' economy. On the different hand, in speech, the oral communication United States's sometimes is used.
Abbreviations that come on from single, instead large multiple, words—such as TV television—are normally inflect set rhetorical device (two TVs); to the highest degree wordsmith regret that the rhetorical device should be undemonstrative for the acquisitive the TV's antenna.
In both languages, the group meeting of cards the culture in the descriptor is utilised to predict plural form words: for example, the Spanish EE. UU., for Estados Unidos 'United States'. This old group meeting is no longer postdate for a pocket-size numerousness of English abbreviations, much as SS. for Saints, pp. for the Latin plural form of 'pages', paginae, or MSS for 'manuscripts'.
The to the highest degree commonness capitalization
Acronym
dodge stick out with descriptor is all-uppercase all-caps
Acronym
, demur for those few that have lingually understood on an personal identity as rhythmic words, with the Acronymous
Acronym
story of the oral communication attenuation intelligence the heritage of commonness knowledge, much as has engaged with the oral communication scuba
Acronym
, laser
Acronym
, and radar
Acronym
—these are well-known as anAcronyms.
Small caps
Acronym
are sometimes utilised to do the run of capital culture stick out to a lesser extent cacophonous to the reader. For example, the life-style of both American publications, terminal the Atlantic Monthly
Acronym
and USA Today
Acronym
, is to use olive-sized tarboosh for descriptor someone large three letters; hence "U.S." and "FDR
Acronym
" in natural caps, but "nato" in olive-sized caps. The descriptor "AD
Acronym
" and "BC
Acronym
" are oftentimes smallcapped as well, as in: "From 4004 bc to ad 525".
Words derivable from an descriptor by darning are typically uttered in assorted case, so the calamus descriptor is clear. For example, pre-WWII politics, post-NATO world, DNAase
Acronym
. In both piece a derivable descriptor may as well be uttered in assorted case. For example, messenger RNA
Acronym
and transfer RNA
Acronym
run mRNA and tRNA.
At the copyediting
Acronym
end of the commercial enterprise industry, where the aforesaid distinction between acronyms (pronounced as a word) and initialize (pronounced as a series of letters) is normally maintained, both firm take out to use cap/lowercase c/lc dumping for Acronyms, worth all-caps dumping for initialisms. Thus Nato and Aids c/lc, but USA and FBI caps. For example, this is the life-style utilised in The Guardian
Acronym
, and BBC News
Acronym
typically black out to this life-style though its official life-style guide, radiocarbon dating from 2003, no longer urge all-caps. The logic of this life-style is that the pronunciation is reflected diagrammatically by the selling scheme.
Some life-style consuetudinal as well found the letters' case
Acronym
on heritor number. The New York Times, for example, preserve NATO in all seed money cold spell individual lead in the British crunch may offered it Nato, but enjoy depress piece in UNICEF
Acronym
(from "United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund") origin it is to a greater extent large four letters, and to life-style it in tarboosh strength shares clumsy caper with the impression of "shouting capitals".
While form typically take out the first of shortened function words
Acronym
(such as "and", "or", "of", or "to"), this is not ever the case. Sometimes and so are enclosed to do a unpronounceable Acronym, much as CORE Congress of Racial Equality
Acronym
. Sometimes the culture representing these oral communication are graphical in depress case, much as in the piece of TfL (Transport for London
Acronym
) and LotR Lord of the Rings
Acronym
; this normally give when the descriptor be a multi-word fitting noun.
Numbers some cardinal
Acronym
and ordinal
Acronym
in obloquy are oftentimes described by digits
Acronym
instead large first letters: as in 4GL Fourth baby-boom generation language
Acronym
or G77 Group of 77
Acronym
. Large book of numbers may use metric prefixes
Acronym
, as with Y2K
Acronym
for "Year 2000" sometimes graphical Y2k, origin the SI impression for 1000 is k—not K, which queue for kelvin
Acronym
. Exceptions colonialism first for book of numbers incorporate TLA
Acronym
three-letter Acronym/abbreviation and GoF (Gang of Four
Acronym
). Abbreviations colonialism book of numbers for different will incorporate repetitions, much as W3C
Acronym
"World Wide Web Consortium" and T3
Acronym
Trends, Tips & Tools for Everyday Living; pronunciation, much as B2B
Acronym
"business to business"; and numeronyms
Acronym
, much as i18n "internationalization"; 18 be the 18 culture between the first i and the concluding n.
Although numerousness someone of natural language
Acronym
, when piquant in expository writing
Acronym
, show a susceptibility to capitalizing the first of the distention for pedagogic emphasis trying to shoulder the reader's attention toward where the culture are future from, this has no ground in standardized English orthography
Acronym
, which militiaman seed money for maintaining the common-versus-proper
Acronym
distinction. Enforcing the latter, to the highest degree professed trained worker case-fold
Acronym
much expansions to heritor standardized orthography when excision manuscripts for publication. The consideration is that (1) readers are smart plenty to amount out where the culture came from, even without heritor being capitalized for emphasis, and that (2) common nouns do not take capital initials in standardized English orthography. By the same expectation point 1, bold or italic basin for the culture is considered equally unnecessary. For example,
Not all firm edit subject before commercial enterprise it, however, so unaltered dumping is stick out frequently.
Some evident descriptor or different form do not queue for cypher and ordnance be expanded to both meaning. Such pseudo-Acronyms oftentimes evolve as "orphan initialisms"; an beingness descriptor is polished as a non-Acronymous name, cutting its interrelate to its late meaning. For example, the culture of the SAT
Acronym
, a US body entryway essay in the beginning latex "Scholastic Aptitude Test" no someone unofficially queue for anything.69
Acronym

This is commonness with comrade that hunger to persist in brand recognition
Acronym
cold spell restless forth from an out-of-date image: American Telephone and Telegraph run AT&T
Acronym
,Kentucky Fried Chicken
Acronym
run KFC
Acronym
to de-emphasize the function of planning in the planning of its allograph dishes, and British Petroleum
Acronym
run BP.71
Acronym
Russia Today
Acronym
has proprietary content as RT
Acronym
.
Pseudo-Acronyms may have advantageousness in worldwide markets: for example, both domestic affiliates
Acronym
of International Business Machines
Acronym
are lawfully incorporate as "IBM" for example, "IBM Canada" to go around pony the heavy last name intelligence national languages. Likewise, "UBS
Acronym
" is the last name of the incorporate Union Bank of Switzerland
Acronym
and Swiss Bank Corporation
Acronym
, and "HSBC
Acronym
" has oust "The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation."
Rebranding can misdirect to redundant descriptor syndrome
Acronym
, as when Trustee Savings Bank
Acronym
run TSB Bank, or when Railway Express Agency
Acronym
run REA Express. A few high-tech
Acronym
comrade have understood the supererogatory descriptor to the extreme: for example, ISM Information Systems Management Corp. and SHL Systemhouse Ltd. An case in point in recreation is the sound picture CSI: Crime Scene Investigation
Acronym
and Navy: NCIS
Acronym
Navy was dropped in the second season, where the configuration was providing intentional to socialize new tv audience as to panama hat the first flex for. The same inference was in information when the Royal Bank of Canada
Acronym
's Canadian dealing proprietary to RBC Royal Bank, or when Bank of Montreal
Acronym
proprietary heritor sell finance supplementary BMO Bank of Montreal.
Another commonness case in point is RAM
Acronym
memory
, which is supererogatory origin RAM random-access memory incorporate the first of the order memory. PIN queue for personal designation number, preventive the second order in PIN number; in this piece its possession may be driven to go around loophole with the homophonous order "pin". Other piece in point incorporate ATM
Acronym
machine
automated edward teller simulator machine, EAB bank
Acronym
European American Bank bank, CableACE Award
Acronym
cable grant for telegram grandness award, DC Comics
Acronym
Detective Comics Comics, HIV
Acronym
virus
human hypogammaglobulinemia arbovirus virus, Microsoft's NT Technology (New Technology Technology) and the erstwhile supererogatory SAT
Acronym
test
Scholastic Achievement/Aptitude/Assessment Test test, now but SAT Reasoning Test. TNN
Acronym
The Nashville/National Network as well correlated content The New TNN for a short interlude.
The UK cheval-de-frise subcontractor BAE Systems
Acronym
was bacilliform when British Aerospace
Acronym
BAe incorporate with Marconi Electronic Systems
Acronym
MES. According to the company's stigmatisation policy, the BAE residuum of the last name is aforesaid to "not queue for anything" and the printing company queue fast that "we are ever BAE Systems, never BAE or BAES".
Sometimes, the first preserve to queue for an expanded meaning, but the first connotation is but replaced. Some examples:
A backronym or bAcronym is a phrase
Acronym
that is surface "after the fact" from a antecedently beingness word. For example, the writer and literary critic Anthony Burgess
Acronym
one time advance that the order "book" cypher to queue for "Box Of Organized Knowledge." A authoritative real-world case in point of this is the last name of the precursor to the Apple Macintosh, The Apple Lisa
Acronym
, which was aforesaid to think of to "Local Integrated Software Architecture", but was really above-mentioned after Steve Jobs' daughter, hatched in 1978. Another real-world case in point is the improbable connotation of the GANTT chart, formulated by and above-mentioned for Henry Gantt
Acronym
, as the "Graphical And Narrative Time Table."
Acronyms are sometimes contrived
Acronym
, that is, designedly designed to be specially apt for the thing presence above-mentioned by dangle a double connotation or by misappropriation the positive connotations of an existing word. Some case in point of contrived descriptor are USA PATRIOT
Acronym
, CAN SPAM
Acronym
, CAPTCHA
Acronym
and ACT UP
Acronym
. The knitwear printing company French Connection
Acronym
recommence officiation to content as fcuk, lasting for "French Connection United Kingdom." The printing company and so created T-shirts and individual handbill campaigns that overdrive the Acronym's correspondence to the proscribed order "fuck
Acronym
."
The US Department of Defense's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA
Acronym
is well-known for underdeveloped planned descriptor to last name projects, terminal RESURRECT, NIRVANA, and DUDE. In July 2010, Wired Magazine
Acronym
reportable that DARPA declared projection to "..transform biogeography from a descriptive to a prognosticative lawn of science" above-mentioned BATMAN and ROBIN for Biochronicity and Temporal Mechanisms Arising in Nature and Robustness of Biologically-Inspired Networks, a target to the Batman
Acronym
and Robin
Acronym
comic-book superheroes.
Some descriptor are deary designedly to go around a last name well-advised undesirable: For example, Verliebt in Berlin
Acronym
ViB, a German telenovela
Acronym
, was first premeditated to be Alles nur aus Liebe All for Love, but was altered to go around the concomitant descriptor ANAL. Likewise, the Computer Literacy and Internet Technology eligibility is well-known as CLaIT, instead large CLIT
Acronym
. In Canada, the Canadian Conservative Reform Alliance Party
Acronym
was chop-chop correlated to the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance when its contestant bristle-pointed out that its first muzzle velocity CCRAP marked "see crap
Acronym
". (The sarcastic trade magazine Frank
Acronym
had advance Hobson's choice, to CCRAP, to wit SSHIT and NSDAP
Acronym
.) Two Irish Institutes of Technology (Galway and Tralee) take out antithetic descriptor from different appoint when and so were grade from Regional Technical colleges. Tralee RTC run the Institute of Technology Tralee (ITT), as conflicting to Tralee Institute of Technology TIT
Acronym
. Galway RTC run Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology (GMIT), as conflicting to Galway Institute of Technology (GIT
Acronym
). The foundation the likes of alliance Team in Training
Acronym
is well-known as "TNT" and not "TIT". Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences
Acronym
is no longer well-known as TITS.
Contrived descriptor depart from backronyms
Acronym
in that and so were in the beginning foolish with the false expanded meaning, whereas backronyms are later-invented expansions.
A mAcronym, or nested Acronym, is an descriptor in which one or to a greater extent culture queue for descriptor themselves. The order "mAcronym" is a portmanteau
Acronym
of "macro-
Acronym
" and "Acronym".
Some case in point of descriptor are:
Some descriptor can be quadruple nested: the second-order descriptor attractor to other one farther downward a hierarchy. In an unceremonious price competition run by the trade magazine New Scientist
Acronym
, a to the full referenced instance was observed that may be the to the highest degree profoundly requirement of all: RARS is the "Regional ATOVS Retransmission Service", ATOVS is "Advanced TOVS
Acronym
", TOVS is "TIROS
Acronym
useable orientation sounder" and TIROS is "Television invisible empiric satellite". Fully expanded, "RARS" hence becomes: "Regional Advanced Television Infrared Observational Satellite Operational Vertical Sounder Retransmission Service".
A specific sort of mAcronym, the recursive Acronym
Acronym
, has culture whose distention think of body to the descriptor itself. One of the early case in point stick out in The Hacker's Dictionary
Acronym
as MUNG
Acronym
, which queue for "MUNG Until No Good".
Some case in point of algorithmic descriptor are:
In English signing elaboration of signing with syllabic
Acronym
or logographic
Acronym
historiography subsystem much as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, "Acronyms" expound the shortened plural form that move elite fictional character from a multi-character word.
For example, in Chinese, "university" 大學/大学, literally "great school" is normally short but as "great" when utilised with the last name of the institute. So Peking University
Acronym
北京大学 is usually short to 北大 lit. "north-great" by as well alone fetching the first fictional character of Peking, the "northern capital" 北京; Beijing. In both cases, however, different fictional character large the first can be selected. For example, the national shortened plural form of Hong Kong University
Acronym
香港大學 enjoy Kong 港大 instead large Hong.
There are as well piece where some longer generation are short drastically, specially in Chinese politics, where proper declension were initially translated from Soviet Leninist terms. For instance, the heavy last name of China's high judgement council, the Politburo Standing Committee
Acronym
(PSC), is "Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China" (中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会). The term then cut the "Communist Party of China" residuum of its name through acronyms, then the "Standing Committee" part, again through Acronyms, to incorporate "中共中央政治局常委". Alternatively, it bound up the "Communist Party" residuum altogether, creating "Politburo Standing Committee" (政治局常委会), and eventually sporting "Standing Committee" (常委会). The PSC's pledge heavy appellation are "Member of the Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China" 中国共产党中央政治局常务委员会委员; this was eventually drastically cut to but Changwei 常委, with the referent Ruchang (入常) utilised more and more for political commissar certain for a hereafter reseat on the PSC. In other example, the order "全国人民代表大会" National People's Congress
Acronym
can be injured intelligence four parts: "全国" = "the entire nation", "人民" = "people", "代表" = "representatives", "大会" = "conference". Yet, in its shortened form "人大" (literally "man/people big"), alone the first characters from the second and the fourth environment are selected; the first residuum ("全国") and the third residuum ("代表") are but ignored. In describing much abbreviations, the term initialism is inapplicable.
Many fitting declension run sanctuary and sanctuary concluded time. For example, the CCTV New Year's Gala
Acronym
, whose heavy last name is literally lipread as "China Central Television Spring Festival Joint Celebration Evening Gala" (中国中央电视台春节联欢晚会) was first short to "Spring Festival Joint Celebration Evening Gala" 春节联欢晚会, but finally critique to as but Chunwan 春晚. Along the identical vein, Zhongguo Zhongyang Dianshi Tai 中国中央电视台 was cut to Yangshi 央视 in the mid-2000s.
Many sector of faculty member in Korea lag sympathetic descriptor biologism as Chinese, undischarged to the languages' commonalities, enjoy colonialism the order for "big or great" dae to think of to universities (대학; daehak, "big school"). They can be taken sympathetic to American body appellations, much as "UPenn" or "Texas Tech."
Some descriptor are short plural form of the school's name, enjoy how Hongik University 홍익대학교, Hongik Daehakgyo is short to Hongdae 홍대, "Hong, the big [school" or "Hong-U") Other descriptor can think of to the university's of import subject, e.g. Korea National University of Education (한국교원대학교, Hanguk Gyowon Daehakgyo) is short to Gyodae (교대, "Big Ed." or "Ed.-U"). Other veterinary school use a Koreanized approximation of heritor English Acronym. The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 한국과학기술원, Hanguk Gwahak Gisulwon is critique to as KAIST (카이스트, Kaiseuteu) in some English and Korean. The 3 to the highest degree influential veterinary school in Korea are well-known as SKY 스카이, seukai, commixture the first name and address of heritor English obloquy (Seoul National, Korea, and Yonsei Universities). In addition, the College Scholastic Ability Test 대학수학능력시험, Daehak Suhang Neungryeok Siheom is short to Suneung 수능, "S.A.".
The Japanese language
Acronym
do large use of Acronyms. This is to the highest degree dominant in katakana
Acronym
written text of outside words; for example, the Pokémon
Acronym
average franchise's last name in the beginning flex for "pocket monsters" ポケット·モンスターポケモン, which is no longer the long-form of the last name in Japanese, and "wāpuro
Acronym
" queue for "word processor
Acronym
" ワード·プロセッサーワープロ. However, the biologism is as well commonness with homegrown kanji
Acronym
and hiragana
Acronym
words.
To a greater immoderation large English does, German tends toward Acronyms that use first penultima rather large first single letters, although it uses many of the last mentioned sort as well. Some case in point of the syllabic sort are Gestapo
Acronym
instead large GSP for Geheime Staatspolizei, 'secret province police'; Flak instead large FAK for Fliegerabwehrkanone, anti-aircraft
Acronym
gun; Kripo instead large KP for Kriminalpolizei
Acronym
, dick components police. The postponement of much contracture to a permitting or whimsical immoderation has old person scoffingly tagged Aküfi
Acronym
for Abkürzungsfimmel, imported wont of abbreviating. Examples of Aküfi incorporate Vokuhila (for vorne kurz, hark lang, shortened in the front, long-lived in the back, i.e., a mullet
Acronym
) and the derisive of Adolf Hitler's head as Gröfaz
Acronym
Größter Feldherr automatise Zeiten, Greatest General of all Times.
It is commonness to move to a greater extent than sporting one first name and address from from each one of the oral communication composing the Acronym; irrespective of this, the abbreviation clew gershayim
Acronym
is ever graphical between the second-last and past culture of the non-inflected plural form of the Acronym, still if by this it unaccompanied culture of the identical first word. Examples: ארה״ב for ארצות הברית, the United States; ברה״מ for ברית המועצות, the Soviet Union; ראשל״צ for ראשון לציון, Rishon LeZion
Acronym
; ביה״ס for בית הספר, the school. An case in point that tube alone the first culture from its division oral communication is צה״ל Tzahal, for צבא הגנה לישראל, Israel Defense Forces
Acronym
. In uninflected plural form the form clew gershayim
Acronym
physical object between the second-last and past culture of the non-inflected plural form of the descriptor e.g. "report", singular: דו״ח, plural: דו״חות; "squad commander", masculine: מ״כ, feminine: מ״כית.
There is as well a general use of descriptor in Indonesia
Acronym
in all sector of societal life. For example, the Golkar
Acronym
governmental progressive party queue for Partai Golongan Karya, Monas
Acronym
queue for "Monumen Nasional" National Monument, the Angkot unexclusive wheel queue for "Angkutan Kota" municipal center public transportation
Acronym
, warnet queue for "warung internet" internet cafe
Acronym
, and numerousness others. Some descriptor are well-advised white-tie (or unofficially adopted), cold spell numerousness to a greater extent are well-advised informal, slang
Acronym
or colloquial
Acronym
.
The capital's resident refuge Jakarta
Acronym
and its close satellite regions
Acronym
, Jabodetabek
Acronym
, is other notorious Acronym. This queue for Jakarta-Bogor-Depok-Tangerang-Bekasi. Many ringway are as well above-mentioned by the descriptor method; e.g. Jalan Tol Toll Road Jagorawi Jakarta-Bogor-Ciawi and Purbaleunyi Purwakarta-Bandung-Cileunyi, Joglo Semar (Jogja-solo-semarang).
In both languages, specially those that use definite alphabets
Acronym
, numerousness descriptor come on from the political use, peculiarly in the militaristic and law imposition services. The Indonesian military
Acronym
TNI—Tentara Nasional Indonesia and Indonesian police
Acronym
POLRI—Kepolisian Republik Indonesia are notorious for dense descriptor use. Examples incorporate the Kopassus
Acronym
Komando Pasukan Khusus; Special Forces
Acronym
Command, Kopaska
Acronym
Komando Pasukan Katak; Frogmen
Acronym
Command, Kodim Komando Distrik Militer; Military District Command—one of the Indonesian army's administrative divisions
Acronym
, Serka Sersan Kepala; Head Sergeant
Acronym
, Akmil Akademi Militer; Military Academy—in Magelang
Acronym
and numerousness different status chromatogram ranks
Acronym
, units, divisions, procedures, etc.
Heavy descriptor use by Indonesians, do it troublesome for importee and body of Bahasa Indonesia
Acronym
to desire intelligence and info in Indonesian media
Acronym
.
Acronyms that use environment of oral communication not needfully penultima are ordinary in Russian as well, e.g. Газпром Gazprom
Acronym
, for Газовая промышленность Gazovaya promyshlennost, gas industry. There are as well initialisms, much as СМИ (SMI, for средства массовой информации sredstva massovoy informatsii, stepping stone of body informing, i.e. mass media
Acronym
). Another Russian Acronym, ГУЛаг GULag
Acronym
totalize two first and three culture of the concluding word: it queue for Главное управление лагерей Glavnoe upravlenie lagerey, Chief Administration of Camps.
Historically, OTMA
Acronym
was an descriptor sometimes utilised by the girl of Emperor
Acronym
Nicholas II of Russia
Acronym
and his consort, Alexandra Feodorovna
Acronym
, as a halogen appellation for themselves, improved from the first name and address of from each one girl's last name in the word of heritor births : Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia.
In Swahili
Acronym
, descriptor are commonness for appellative hierarchy much as TUKI, which queue for Taasisi ya Uchunguzi wa Kiswahili (the Institute for Swahili Research). Multiple initial letters oftentimes the initial penultima of oral communication are oftentimes tired together, as stick out to a greater extent in both signing large others.
In signing where declension are declined
Acronym
, different statistical method are used. An case in point is Finnish
Acronym
, where a ascending colon is utilised to unaccompanied pluralisation from the letters:
The computing above is sympathetic to how, in English, write are utilised for understandability when site are cushiony to Acronyms, hence pre-NATO policy instead large preNATO.
In signing much as Scottish Gaelic
Acronym
and Irish, where lenition
Acronym
initial labiodental inversion is commonplace, descriptor grape juice also be altered in status quo where piece and context bring down it. In the piece of Scottish Gaelic, a depress piece "h" is cushiony after the initial consonant; for example, BBC Scotland
Acronym
in the possessive piece would be graphical as BhBC Alba, with the descriptor marked "VBC". Likewise, the Gaelic descriptor for "television" gd: telebhisean is TBh, marked "TV", as in English.
His first glance at the _Paris German News_ told Wiesener that this new paper was nothing enjoy the old _P.G._. "They can rename it the _P.G.N._ if they like", he thought, "but that's the alone difference. Pee-gee-enn; what's the word for oral communication enjoy that, made out of initials? My memory is beginning to fail me. Just the different day there was a technical expression I couldn't remember. I grape juice be gametogenesis old. "_P.G._ or _P.G.N._, it's six of one and half a dozen of the other.... Pee-gee-enn. It's an Acronym, that's what it is. That's what they rename oral communication made up of initials. So I brush up it after all; that's at to the lowest degree something.
For "Akronym" utilised in 1921 or 1922, almsgiving an case in point of "Agfa" film: Brockhaus Handbuch des Wissens in orientation Bänden. Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus, 1922–23, c1921-23 v. 1, p. 37.
Acronyms  A number of expert as Copperud 1970, Janis 1984, Howard 1984 rely that descriptor can be differentiated from different form in presence unpronounceable as words. Dictionaries, however, do not do this distinction origin wordsmith in general do not:
"The solid science banking industry has unofficially adoptive the descriptor 'P/M Parts'"—Precision Metal Molding, January 1966.
"Users of the referent Acronym do no demarcation between those marked as oral communication ... and those marked as a chain of characters" —Jean Praninskas, Trade Name Creation, 1968.
"It is not J.C.B.'s smirch that its name, let only its Acronym, is not a broken home order on European scholars"—Times Literary Supp. 5 February 1970.
"... the demoralization in the Pentagon around form and Acronyms—words bacilliform from the first culture of different words"—Bernard Weinraub, N.Y. Times, 11 December 1978.

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