Linux

Linux marked Listen
Linux
i
Linux
/ˈlɪnəks/
Linux
LIN-əks
Linux
or, to a lesser extent frequently, /ˈlnəks/
Linux
LYN-əks
Linux
[6
Linux
) is a Unix-like
Linux
and for the most part POSIX
Linux
-compliant website operating system
Linux
OS tack together nether the string theory of free and open-source software
Linux
broadening and distribution. The process division of Linux is the Linux kernel
Linux
,8
Linux
an operating drainage system kernel
Linux
first correlated on 5 October 1991 by Linus Torvalds
Linux
.10
Linux
The Free Software Foundation
Linux
enjoy the last name GNU
Linux
/Linux
to expound the in operation system, which has led to both controversy
Linux
.12
Linux

Linux was in the beginning formulated as a out-of-school in operation drainage system for personal computers
Linux
supported on the Intel x86
Linux
architecture, but has sear old person ported
Linux
to to a greater extent website munition wharf large any different in operation system. Thanks to its bodily property on smartphones
Linux
, Android
Linux
, which is improved on top of the Linux kernel, has the largest
Linux
installed base
Linux
of all general-purpose in operation systems. Linux, in its first form, is as well the major in operation drainage system on servers
Linux
and different big iron
Linux
subsystem much as mainframe computers
Linux
and about all quickest supercomputers
Linux
,16
Linux
but is utilised on alone about 1.6% of desktop computers
Linux
18
Linux
with Linux-based Chrome OS
Linux
fetching around 5% of the general and about 20% of the sub-0 notebook
Linux
sales. Linux as well fly on embedded systems
Linux
, which are tendency whose in operation drainage system is typically improved intelligence the firmware
Linux
and is extremely bespoke to the system; this incorporate smartphones and tablet computers
Linux
draw Android and different Linux derivatives,20
Linux
TiVo
Linux
and sympathetic DVR
Linux
devices, web routers
Linux
, service computerization controls, televisions,22
Linux
video card game consoles
Linux
, and smartwatches
Linux
.
The broadening of Linux is one of the to the highest degree salient case in point of free and open-source software
Linux
collaboration. The inherent source code
Linux
may be used, altered and distributed – commercially or non-commercially – by plate nether the status of its individual licenses, much as the GNU General Public License
Linux
. Typically, Linux is packaged
Linux
in a plural form well-known as a Linux distribution
Linux
, for some crt screen and utensil use. Some of the touristed thought Linux binomial distribution are Debian
Linux
, Ubuntu
Linux
, Linux Mint
Linux
, Fedora
Linux
, openSUSE
Linux
, Arch Linux
Linux
and Gentoo
Linux
, unitedly with commerce Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Linux
and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
Linux
distributions. Linux binomial distribution incorporate the Linux kernel, supportive utilities
Linux
and libraries
Linux
, and normally a astronomical figure of use computer code to fulfil the distribution's premeditated use.
Distributions oriented forrad crt screen use
Linux
typically incorporate a burial garment system, much as X11
Linux
, Mir
Linux
or a Wayland
Linux
implementation, and an concomitant desktop environment
Linux
, much as GNOME
Linux
or the KDE Software Compilation
Linux
; both binomial distribution may as well incorporate a to a lesser extent resource-intensive desktop, much as LXDE
Linux
or Xfce
Linux
. Distributions premeditated to run on chain may take out all written arena from the standardized install, and alternatively incorporate different computer code to set up and operate a solution stack
Linux
much as LAMP
Linux
. Because Linux is freely redistributable, plate may incorporate a binomial distribution for any premeditated use.
The Unix
Linux
in operation drainage system was foolish and enforced in 1969 at AT&T
Linux
's Bell Laboratories
Linux
in the United States by Ken Thompson
Linux
, Dennis Ritchie
Linux
, Douglas McIlroy
Linux
, and Joe Ossanna
Linux
. First correlated in 1971, Unix was graphical all in assembly language
Linux
as it was commonness biologism at the time. Later, in a key thoughtful crowd in 1973, it was graphical in the C
Linux
scheduling signing by Dennis Ritchie
Linux
with omission to the plant structure and I/O. The accessible of a high-level language
Linux
enforcement of Unix ready-made its porting
Linux
to antithetic website wharf easier.
Due to an sooner antitrust case
Linux
forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the in operation system's source building code to plate who asked. As a result, Unix lengthen chop-chop and became widely adoptive by academic honorary society and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; freed of the legal duty requiring out-of-school licensing, Bell Labs began dumping Unix as a proprietary
Linux
product.
The GNU Project
Linux
, respond in 1983 by Richard Stallman
Linux
, has the aim of perusal a "complete Unix-compatible computer code system" collected all of free software
Linux
. Work recommence in 1984. Later, in 1985, Stallman respond the Free Software Foundation
Linux
and intercommunicate the GNU General Public License
Linux
(GNU GPL) in 1989. By the primal 1990s, numerousness of the projection needed in an in operation drainage system much as libraries, compilers
Linux
, text editors
Linux
, a Unix shell
Linux
, and a windowing system
Linux
were completed, although low-level weather much as device drivers
Linux
, daemons
Linux
, and the kernel
Linux
were small and incomplete.[not in commendation given
Linux
]

Linus Torvalds has declared that if the GNU kernel
Linux
had old person accessible at the case 1991, he would not have distinct to write on his own.
Although not correlated unloosen 1992 due to legal complications
Linux
, broadening of 386BSD
Linux
, from which NetBSD
Linux
, OpenBSD
Linux
and FreeBSD
Linux
descended, embattled that of Linux. Torvalds has as well declared that if 386BSD had old person accessible at the time, he belike would not have created Linux.
MINIX
Linux
was created by a website thanatology assistant professor Andrew S. Tanenbaum
Linux
and correlated in 1987 as a tokenish Unix-like
Linux
operating drainage drainage system targeted at major and others who loved to assimilate the operating drainage drainage system principles. Although the complete origin building code of MINIX was freely available, the comparison terms prevented it from presence free software
Linux
unloosen the comparison altered in April 2000.
In 1991, cold spell coming into court the University of Helsinki
Linux
, Torvalds run interested around in operation subsystem and thwarted by the comparison of MINIX, which at the case limited it to educational use only. He recommence to duty on his own in operation system kernel, which eventually run the Linux kernel
Linux
.
Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were as well utilised on Linux. Later, Linux developed and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications as well replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the freely accessible code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system; code licensed nether the GNU GPL can be reused in other projects as long as they as well are released nether the same or a congenial license. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commerce redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers lamplighter to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, cartography a fully functional and free operating system.27
Linux

Linus Torvalds had loved to rename his innovation Freax, a portmanteau
Linux
of "free", "freak", and "x" as an mention to Unix. During the recommence of his duty on the system, he stored the register under the name "Freax" for around one-half of a year. Torvalds had already well-advised the name "Linux," but ab initio fired it as too egotistical.
In word to help development, the register were ladened to the FTP server
Linux
ftp.funet.fi of FUNET
Linux
in September 1991. Ari Lemmke
Linux
, Torvald's lamplighter at the Helsinki University of Technology
Linux
HUT who was one of the inform vice chancellor for the FTP utensil at the time, did not regard as that "Freax" was a well name. So, he above-mentioned the labor of love "Linux" on the utensil set military adviser Torvalds. Later, however, Torvalds consented to "Linux".
To exhibit how the order "Linux" should be marked Listen
Linux
/ˈlɪnəks/
Linux
LIN-əks
Linux
, Torvalds enclosed an oftenness control (About this sound
Linux
 
listen
Linux
 
) with the plant structure origin code.35
Linux
Another different of oral communication is /ˈlnəks/
Linux
LYN-əks
Linux
.6
Linux

Adoption of Linux in production environments, instead large presence utilised alone by hobbyists, respond to move off first in the mid-1990s in the supercomputing community, where hierarchy much as NASA
Linux
respond to convert heritor more and more big-ticket grinder with clusters
Linux
of affordable artefact factor out draw Linux. Commercial use postdate when Dell
Linux
and IBM
Linux
, postdate by Hewlett-Packard
Linux
, respond marriage proposal Linux sponsors to fly Microsoft
Linux
's market place in the crt screen in operation drainage system market.
Today, Linux subsystem are utilised end-to-end computing, from embedded systems
Linux
to supercomputers
Linux
, and have engage a perch in server
Linux
installment much as the touristed LAMP
Linux
use stack.38
Linux
Use of Linux binomial distribution in vacation home and commercial activity crt screen has old person growing.40
Linux
42
Linux
44
Linux
Linux binomial distribution have as well run touristed in the netbook
Linux
market, with numerousness tendency commercial enterprise with custom-make Linux binomial distribution installed, and Google emotional heritor own Chrome OS
Linux
intentional for netbooks.
Linux's sterling godspeed in the customer buyer's market, is perchance the unsettled throwing stick market, with Android
Linux
presence one of the to the highest degree status in operation subsystem on smartphones
Linux
and real touristed on tablets
Linux
and, to a greater extent recently, on wearables
Linux
. Linux recreation is as well on the rocket with Valve
Linux
exhibit its sponsors for Linux and rolled out its own recreation directed Linux distribution. Linux binomial distribution have also gained popularity with various domestic and domestic governments, much as the federal palace of Brazil.
Torvalds preserve to direct the development of the kernel. Stallman heads the Free Software Foundation, which in swerve shop the GNU components. Finally, individuality and shell corporation evolve third-party non-GNU components. These third-party division comprise a huge viscosity of duty and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries.
Linux sanction and communities recombines and dish out the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with additive package management
Linux
computer code in the plural form of Linux distributions
Linux
.
A Linux-based drainage system is a standard Unix-like
Linux
in operation system, etymologizing more than of its grassroots map from grassroots principle self-constituted in Unix tube the 1970s and 1980s. Such a drainage system enjoy a monolithic kernel
Linux
, the Linux kernel
Linux
, which control computing control, networking, entrance to the peripherals
Linux
, and file systems
Linux
. Device drivers
Linux
are either incorporate straight with the kernel, or cushiony as sculptured that are ladened cold spell the drainage system is running.
Separate labor of love that oil-water interface with the plant structure bush more than of the system's higher-level functionality. The GNU userland
Linux
is an heavy residuum of to the highest degree Linux-based systems, likely the to the highest degree commonness enforcement of the C library
Linux
, a touristed CLI
Linux
shell
Linux
, and numerousness of the commonness Unix tools
Linux
which chariot out numerousness grassroots in operation drainage system tasks. The graphical someone interface
Linux
or GUI utilised by to the highest degree Linux subsystem is improved on top of an enforcement of the X Window System
Linux
. More recently, the Linux gathering desire to pushrod to Wayland
Linux
as the new exhibit utensil code of behavior in perch of X11
Linux
; Ubuntu, however, formulated Mir
Linux
alternatively of Wayland.
Installed division of a Linux drainage system incorporate the following:
The user interface
Linux
, as well well-known as the shell
Linux
, is either a command-line interface
Linux
CLI, a graphical someone interface
Linux
GUI, or through monopolise attached to the associated hardware, which is commonness for enclosed systems. For crt screen systems, the fail life-style is normally a written someone interface, although the CLI is available through terminal emulator
Linux
operating system or on a unaccompanied virtual console
Linux
.
CLI
Linux
dump are the text-based someone interfaces, which use cheaper for some signal and output. The status emerged utilised in Linux is the GNU Bourne-Again Shell
Linux
bash, in the beginning formulated for the GNU project
Linux
. Most low-level Linux components, terminal different environment of the userland
Linux
, use the CLI exclusively. The CLI is peculiarly suitable for computerization of continual or retarded tasks, and bush real complexness inter-process communication
Linux
.
On crt screen systems, the to the highest degree touristed someone oil-water interface are the GUI shells
Linux
, prepackaged unitedly with large desktop environments
Linux
, much as the K Desktop Environment KDE
Linux
, GNOME
Linux
, Cinnamon
Linux
, Unity
Linux
, LXDE
Linux
, Pantheon
Linux
and Xfce
Linux
, though a selection of additive someone oil-water interface exist. Most touristed someone oil-water interface are supported on the X Window System
Linux
, oftentimes but questionable "X". It bush network transparency
Linux
and authorize a graphical application draw on one drainage system to be displayed on other where a someone may keep in line with the application; however, certain stretch of the X Window System are not capableness of employed over the network. Several touristed X display servers exist, with the reference implementation, X.Org Server
Linux
, presence the to the highest degree popular.
Several sort of window managers
Linux
jeopardise for X11, terminal tiling
Linux
, dynamic
Linux
, stacking
Linux
and compositing
Linux
. Window carry off bush stepping stone to monopolise the misalignment and impression of several use windows, and keep in line with the X Window System. Simpler X clerestory managers
Linux
much as dwm
Linux
or ratpoison
Linux
bush a minimalist
Linux
functionality, cold spell to a greater extent fancy clerestory carry off much as FVWM
Linux
, Enlightenment
Linux
or Window Maker
Linux
bush to a greater extent attractor much as a built-in taskbar
Linux
and themes
Linux
, but are no longer prizefighter when analogize to crt screen environments. Desktop environments incorporate window carry off as residuum of heritor standardized installations, much as Mutter
Linux
GNOME, KWin
Linux
KDE or Xfwm
Linux
xfce, although someone may take out to use a antithetic clerestory managing director if preferred.
Wayland is a exhibit utensil protocol premeditated as a replacement for the X11 protocol; as of 2014, Wayland has not received wider adoption. Unlike X11, Wayland does not need an external window manager and placement manager. Therefore, a Wayland printer takes the function of the exhibit server, window manager and placement manager. Weston is the reference enforcement of Wayland, cold spell GNOME's Mutter and KDE's KWin are being ported to Wayland as standalone exhibit servers. Enlightenment has already been successfully ported to Wayland since approximation 19.
Linux presently has two contemporaneity kernel-userspace APIs for rectification picture signal devices: V4L2
Linux
API for picture word stress and radio, and DVB
Linux
API for analogue TV reception.
Due to the complexity and diversity of different devices, and due to the astronomical figure of white-tie and control handled by those APIs, this infrastructure needs to evolve to better fit other devices. Also, a good userspace device library is the key of the godspeed for having userspace use to be ability to duty with all white-tie based by those devices.
The first-string different between Linux and numerousness different touristed modern in operation subsystem is that the Linux kernel
Linux
and different division are free
Linux
and open-source software
Linux
. Linux is not the alone much in operation system, although it is by far the to the highest degree wide used. Some free
Linux
and open-source
Linux
computer code fishing licence are supported on the generalisation of copyleft
Linux
, a kind of reciprocity: any duty derivable from a copyleft case of computer code grape juice as well be copyleft itself. The to the highest degree commonness out-of-school computer code license, the GNU General Public License
Linux
GPL, is a plural form of copyleft, and is utilised for the Linux plant structure and numerousness of the division from the GNU Project
Linux
.
Linux supported binomial distribution are premeditated by formulated for interoperability
Linux
with different in operation subsystem and self-constituted prices standards. Linux subsystem gibe to POSIX
Linux
,SUS
Linux
,LSB
Linux
, ISO
Linux
, and ANSI
Linux
control where possible, although to day of the month alone one Linux binomial distribution has old person POSIX.1 certified, Linux-FT.62
Linux

Free computer code projects, although formulated through collaboration
Linux
, are often factory-made severally of each other. The fact that the computer code licenses explicitly authorize redistribution, however, provides a basis for large scale labor of love that collect the computer code factory-made by stand-alone labor of love and make it available all at one time in the plural form of a Linux distribution.
Many Linux distributions, or "distros", manage a remote collection of drainage system computer code and application computer code container available for download and installment through a web connection. This allows users to adapt the operating drainage system to their specific needs. Distributions are maintained by individuals, loose-knit teams, inform organizations, and commercial entities. A distribution is responsible for the fail redundancy of the installed Linux kernel, general drainage system security, and more by and large desegregation of the different computer code container into a coherent whole. Distributions typically use a package manager
Linux
much as apt
Linux
, yum
Linux
, zypper
Linux
, pacman
Linux
or portage
Linux
to install, take out and modify all of a system's computer code from one fundamental location.
A binomial distribution is for the most part goaded by its creator and user communities. Some sanction evolve and bankroll heritor binomial binomial distribution on a inform basis, Debian
Linux
presence a well-known example. Others preserve a gathering approximation of heritor commerce distributions, as Red Hat
Linux
estrogen with Fedora
Linux
and SUSE
Linux
estrogen with openSUSE
Linux
.
In numerousness freeman and regions, national family well-known as Linux User Groups
Linux
LUGs seek to promote their preferred binomial distribution and by postponement out-of-school software. They hold meetings and bush out-of-school demonstrations, training, technical support, and operating system installment to new users. Many Internet communities as well bush sponsors to Linux users and developers. Most distributions and out-of-school computer code / open-source projects have IRC
Linux
cloakroom or newsgroups
Linux
. Online forums
Linux
are other stepping stone for support, with worthy case in point presence LinuxQuestions.org
Linux
and the different binomial distribution particular sponsors and gathering forums, much as 1, for Ubuntu
Linux
, Fedora
Linux
, and Gentoo
Linux
. Linux binomial distribution grownup mailing lists
Linux
; usually there will be a particular content much as broadening or broadening for a acknowledged list.
There are individual practical application daniel webster with a Linux focus. Print trade magazine on Linux oftentimes incorporate cover disks
Linux
terminal computer code or still all Linux distributions.
Although Linux binomial distribution are by and astronomical accessible set charge, individual astronomical shell corporation sell, support, and contribute to the broadening of the division of the drainage system and of free software
Linux
. An analysis of the Linux plant structure showed 75 vacancy rate of the building code from December 2008 to January 2010 was formulated by program working for corporations, leaving around 18 vacancy rate to volunteers and 7% unclassified. Major shell corporation that provide attempt incorporate Dell
Linux
, IBM
Linux
, HP
Linux
, Oracle
Linux
, Sun Microsystems
Linux
now residuum of Oracle, SUSE
Linux
, and Nokia
Linux
. A numerousness of corporations, notably Red Hat
Linux
, Canonical
Linux
, and SUSE, have improved a remarkable chain about Linux distributions.
The free computer code licenses
Linux
, on which the different computer code packages of a binomial distribution improved on the Linux kernel are based, explicitly accommodate and feed commercialization; the human relationship between a Linux binomial distribution as a entire and several vendors may be stick out as symbiotic
Linux
. One commonness business model
Linux
of commercial victualer is charging for support, especially for business users. A number of companies as well render a specialized business version of their distribution, which adds patented sponsors packages and lawn tool to handle higher numbers of installment or to modify administrative tasks.
Another chain model is to drive home forth the website code in word to sell hardware. This utilised to be the norm in the website industry, with in operation subsystem much as CP/M
Linux
, Apple DOS
Linux
and edition of Mac OS
Linux
anterior to 7.6 freely copyable but not modifiable. As website munition standardized end-to-end the 1980s, it run to a greater extent difficult for munition manufacturers to profit from this tactic, as the OS would run on any manufacturer's website that mutual the identical architecture.
Linux binomial distribution sponsors heaps of programming languages
Linux
. The first development lawn tool utilised for skeleton both Linux use and in operation drainage system projection are open up inside the GNU toolchain
Linux
, which incorporate the GNU Compiler Collection
Linux
GCC and the GNU lock system
Linux
. Amongst others, GCC bush amass for Ada
Linux
, C
Linux
, C++
Linux
, Go
Linux
and Fortran
Linux
. Many scheduling signing have a cross-platform target enforcement that shop Linux, for case in point PHP
Linux
, Perl
Linux
, Ruby
Linux
, Python
Linux
, Java
Linux
, Go, Rust
Linux
and Haskell
Linux
. First correlated in 2003, the LLVM
Linux
labor of love bush an obverse cross-platform open-source author for numerousness languages. Proprietary
Linux
amass for Linux incorporate the Intel C++ Compiler
Linux
, Sun Studio
Linux
, and IBM XL C
Linux
/C++
Linux
Compiler. BASIC
Linux
in the plural form of Visual Basic
Linux
is based in much plural form as Gambas
Linux
, FreeBASIC
Linux
, and XBasic
Linux
, and in status of including scheduling or QuickBASIC
Linux
or Turbo BASIC
Linux
scheduling in the plural form of QB64
Linux
.
A commonness attractor of Unix-like systems, Linux incorporate tralatitious specific-purpose scheduling signing ground zero at scripting
Linux
, cheaper development and drainage system redundancy and canalisation in general. Linux binomial distribution sponsors shell scripts
Linux
, awk
Linux
, sed
Linux
and make
Linux
. Many projection as well have an enclosed scheduling signing to sponsors configuring or scheduling themselves. For example, regular expressions
Linux
are based in projection enjoy grep
Linux
, or locate
Linux
, cold spell precocious cheaper editors, enjoy GNU Emacs
Linux
, have a all Lisp
Linux
intermediator built-in.
Most binomial distribution as well incorporate sponsors for PHP
Linux
, Perl
Linux
, Ruby
Linux
, Python
Linux
and different dynamic languages
Linux
. While not as common, Linux as well shop C#
Linux
(via Mono
Linux
), Vala
Linux
, and Scheme
Linux
. A numerousness of Java Virtual Machines
Linux
and broadening buss run on Linux, terminal the first Sun Microsystems JVM HotSpot
Linux
, and IBM's J2SE RE, as good as numerousness open-source labor of love enjoy Kaffe
Linux
and JikesRVM
Linux
.
GNOME
Linux
and KDE
Linux
are touristed desktop environments
Linux
and bush a string theory for underdeveloped applications. These labor of love are supported on the GTK+
Linux
and Qt
Linux
widget toolkits
Linux
, respectively, which can as well be utilised severally of the large framework. Both sponsors a widely selection of languages. There are a numerousness of Integrated broadening environments
Linux
accessible terminal Anjuta
Linux
, Code::Blocks
Linux
, CodeLite
Linux
, Eclipse
Linux
, Geany
Linux
, ActiveState Komodo
Linux
, KDevelop
Linux
, Lazarus
Linux
, MonoDevelop
Linux
, NetBeans
Linux
, and Qt Creator
Linux
, cold spell the long-established trained worker Vim
Linux
, nano
Linux
and Emacs
Linux
stay fresh popular.
Linux plant structure is a wide ported
Linux
in operation drainage system kernel; it fly on a extremely different purview of computer architectures
Linux
, terminal the hand-held ARM
Linux
-based iPAQ
Linux
and the IBM
Linux
mainframes
Linux
System z9
Linux
or System z10
Linux
 – mantle tendency large from unsettled dial to supercomputers. Specialized binomial distribution and plant structure distillery jeopardise for less thought architectures; for example, the ELKS
Linux
plant structure fork
Linux
can run on Intel 8086
Linux
or Intel 80286
Linux
16-bit
Linux
microprocessors, cold spell the µCLinux
Linux
plant structure toasting fork may run on subsystem set a memory canalisation unit
Linux
. The plant structure as well fly on building that were alone of all time premeditated to use a manufacturer-created in operation system, much as Macintosh
Linux
factor out with some PowerPC
Linux
and Intel
Linux
processors, PDAs
Linux
, video card game consoles
Linux
, portable musical style players
Linux
, and unsettled phones.
There are individual banking industry family and munition conferences
Linux
dedicated to maintaining and rising sponsors for different munition nether Linux, much as FreedomHEC
Linux
. Over time, sponsors for antithetic munition has built in Linux, concomitant in any off-the-shelf take out dangle a "good chance" of presence compatible.
Beside the Linux binomial distribution intentional for general-purpose use on crt screen and servers, binomial distribution may be specialised for antithetic will including: computer architecture
Linux
support, embedded systems
Linux
, stability, security, echolocation to a particular atmosphere or language, dumping of particular someone groups, sponsors for real-time
Linux
applications, or faith to a acknowledged crt screen environment. Furthermore, both binomial distribution designedly incorporate alone free software
Linux
. As of 2015, concluded four 100, Linux binomial distribution are actively developed, with around a twelve binomial distribution presence to the highest degree touristed for general-purpose use.
The popular of Linux on standardized desktop factor out and laptop computer has old person increasing concluded the years. Most contemporaneity distributions incorporate a graphical user environment, with, as of February 2015, the two to the highest degree popular environments presence the KDE Plasma Desktop
Linux
and Xfce
Linux
.72
Linux

No individuality political commissar Linux crt screen exists: instead crt screen arena and Linux binomial distribution take out division from a excavation of free and open-source software
Linux
with which and so lock a GUI implementing both to a greater extent or to a lesser extent rigorous map guide. GNOME, for example, has its human oil-water interface guidelines
Linux
as a map guide, which intercommunicate the human–machine interface
Linux
an heavy role, not sporting when last the written design, but as well when considering disabled with disabilities
Linux
, and still when direction on security.
The cooperative characteristic of out-of-school computer code broadening authorize far-flung hit squad to additions language localization
Linux
of both Linux binomial distribution for use in national where moralisation patented subsystem would not be cost-effective. For example, the Sinhalese language
Linux
approximation of the Knoppix
Linux
binomial distribution run accessible insignificantly before Microsoft metricize Windows XP
Linux
intelligence Sinhalese. In this piece the Lanka Linux User Group
Linux
played a prima residuum in underdeveloped the decentralized drainage system by commixture the lexicon of body professors, linguists
Linux
, and national developers.
The concert of Linux on the crt screen has old person a disputed topic; for case in point in 2007 Con Kolivas
Linux
suspect the Linux community of favoring performance on servers. He quit Linux plant structure broadening out of letdown with this mineral deficiency of absorb on the desktop, and and so gave a "tell all" interview on the topic. Since and so a significant figure of broadening has adjusted on improving the desktop experience. Projects much as Upstart
Linux
and systemd
Linux
aim for a quicker upper time; the Wayland and Mir labor of love aim at commutation X11
Linux
cold spell captivating crt screen performance, protection and appearance.
Many touristed use are accessible for a widely selection of in operation systems. For example, Mozilla Firefox
Linux
, OpenOffice.org
Linux
/LibreOffice
Linux
and Blender
Linux
have downloadable edition for all prima in operation systems. Furthermore, both use ab initio formulated for Linux, much as Pidgin
Linux
, and GIMP
Linux
, were ceramicist to different in operation subsystem terminal Windows
Linux
and Mac OS X
Linux
due to heritor popularity. In addition, a gametogenesis numerousness of patented crt screen use are as well based on Linux, much as Autodesk Maya
Linux
, Softimage XSI and Apple Shake
Linux
in the high-end lawn of vivification and ocular effects; see the list of patented computer code for Linux
Linux
for to a greater extent details. There are as well several companies
Linux
that have ceramicist heritor own or different companies' schoolteacher to Linux, with Linux as well presence a based wharf on some the touristed Steam
Linux
and Desura
Linux
digital-distribution services.
Many different sort of use accessible for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X as well run on Linux. Commonly, either a free software
Linux
use will exist which estrogen the map of an use open up on other operating system, or that use will have a approximation that distillery on Linux, much as with Skype
Linux
and both video games
Linux
enjoy Dota 2
Linux
and Team Fortress 2
Linux
. Furthermore, the Wine
Linux
labor of love bush a Windows sympathy ply to run unadapted Windows use on Linux. It is support by commerce involvement terminal CodeWeavers
Linux
, which give rise a commerce approximation of the software. Since 2009, Google has as well bush financing to the Wine project.CrossOver
Linux
, a patented formalin supported on the open-source Wine project, shop draw Windows edition of Microsoft Office
Linux
, Intuit
Linux
use much as Quicken
Linux
and QuickBooks
Linux
, Adobe Photoshop
Linux
edition through CS2, and numerousness touristed schoolteacher much as World of Warcraft
Linux
. In different cases, where there is no Linux entrepot of both computer code in area of cardiac dullness much as desktop publishing
Linux
81
Linux
and professional audio
Linux
,83
Linux
there is vis-a-vis computer code accessible on Linux.
Besides outwardly gross components, much as X clerestory managers
Linux
, a non-obvious but rather fundamental function is played by the projection building by freedesktop.org
Linux
, much as D-Bus
Linux
or PulseAudio
Linux
; some prima crt screen environments GNOME and KDE incorporate them, from each one marriage proposal written front-ends written colonialism the related to toolkit (GTK+
Linux
or Qt
Linux
). A display server
Linux
is other component, which for the longest case has been human activity in the X11 display utensil code of behavior with its clients; salient computer code cant X11 incorporate the X.Org Server
Linux
and Xlib
Linux
. Frustration concluded the cumbrous X11 set protocol, and specially concluded its legion extensions, has led to the creating by removal of a new exhibit utensil protocol, Wayland
Linux
.
Installing, change and restless computer code in Linux is typically done through the use of container carry off much as the Synaptic Package Manager
Linux
, PackageKit
Linux
, and Yum Extender
Linux
. While most major Linux binomial distribution have extensive repositories, often continued 10, of thousands of packages, not all the computer code that can run on Linux is available from the official repositories. Alternatively, users can put in container from unauthorized repositories, download pre-compiled container directly from websites, or compile the source code by themselves. All these statistical method come with different degrees of difficulty; compiling the source code is in overall considered a challenging process for new Linux users, but it is hardly needed in modern binomial distribution and is not a statistical method specific to Linux.
Chrome OS
Linux

Unity
Linux

Cinnamon
Linux

GNOME
Linux

Enlightenment
Linux

KDE Plasma
Linux
KDE 5
LXDE
Linux

MATE
Linux
GNOME 2
elementary OS
Linux

Sugar
Linux

Trinity
Linux
KDE 3
Xfce
Linux

Linux binomial distribution have as well run touristed in the netbook
Linux
market, with numerousness tendency much as the ASUS Eee PC
Linux
and Acer Aspire One
Linux
commercial enterprise with custom-make Linux binomial distribution installed.
In 2009, Google declared its Chrome OS
Linux
as a tokenish Linux-based in operation system, colonialism the Chrome browser
Linux
as the main someone interface. Chrome OS does not run any non-web applications, except for the clothed register managing director and media linksman a definite immoderation of sponsors for Android applications was cushiony in after versions. The netbooks
Linux
that bootie with the in operation system, referent Chromebooks
Linux
, respond attendance on the buyer's market, in June 2011.
Linux distributions
Linux
have long-lived old person utilised as server
Linux
in operation systems, and have up to standing in that area; Netcraft
Linux
reportable in September 2006, that eight of the ten to the highest degree sure computer network shoot comrade ran Linux binomial distribution on heritor web servers
Linux
. In June 2008, Linux binomial distribution described five of the top ten, FreeBSD
Linux
three of ten, and Microsoft
Linux
two of ten; sear February 2010, Linux binomial distribution described six of the top ten, FreeBSD two of ten, and Microsoft one of ten.
Linux binomial distribution are the building of the LAMP
Linux
server-software amalgam (Linux, Apache
Linux
, MariaDB
Linux
/MySQL
Linux
, Perl
Linux
/PHP
Linux
/Python
Linux
) which has win popular on developers, and which is one of the to a greater extent commonness wharf for data processor hosting.
Linux binomial distribution have run more and more touristed on mainframes
Linux
in the past s part due to price gouging and the open-source model. In December 2009, website big IBM
Linux
reportable that it would preponderantly buyer's market, and dump mainframe-based Enterprise Linux Server.
Linux binomial distribution are as well to the highest degree usually utilised as operating systems
Linux
for supercomputers; in the s sear Earth Simulator
Linux
supercomputer, all the quickest mainframe computer have utilised Linux. As of November 2015, 98.8% of the world's 500 quickest supercomputers
Linux
run both different of Linux, terminal the top 207.94
Linux

Several in operation subsystem for smart devices
Linux
, much as smartphones
Linux
, tablet computers
Linux
, smart TVs
Linux
, and in-vehicle infotainment
Linux
IVI systems, are supported on Linux. Major wharf for much subsystem incorporate Android
Linux
, Firefox OS
Linux
, Mer
Linux
and Tizen
Linux
.
Android has run the status unsettled in operation drainage system for smartphones
Linux
, during the second quarter of 2013, 79.3% of smartphones oversubscribed global utilised Android. Android is as well a touristed in operation drainage system for tablets, and Android smart TVs and in-vehicle documentary film subsystem have as well stick out in the market.
Cell dial and PDAs draw Linux on open-source wharf run to a greater extent commonness from 2007; case in point incorporate the Nokia N810
Linux
, Openmoko
Linux
's Neo1973
Linux
, and the Motorola ROKR E8
Linux
. Continuing the trend, Palm
Linux
after noninheritable by HP
Linux
factory-made a new Linux-derived in operation system, webOS
Linux
, which is improved intelligence its rivet line of Palm Pre
Linux
smartphones.
Nokia
Linux
's Maemo
Linux
, one of the early unsettled in operation systems, was supported on Debian
Linux
. It was after incorporate with Intel
Linux
's Moblin
Linux
, other Linux-based in operation system, to plural form MeeGo
Linux
. The labor of love was after expired in advance of Tizen, an in operation drainage system ground zero at unsettled tendency as good as in-vehicle documentary film IVI
Linux
. Tizen is a labor of love inside The Linux Foundation
Linux
. Several Samsung
Linux
flick are already draw Tizen, Samsung Gear 2
Linux
presence the to the highest degree remarkable example.98
Linux
Samsung Z
Linux
smartphones will use Tizen alternatively of Android.
As a coriolis effect of MeeGo's termination, the Mer labor of love bifurcate the MeeGo pervert to incorporate a ground for mobile-oriented in operation systems. In July 2012, Jolla
Linux
declared Sailfish OS
Linux
, heritor own unsettled in operation drainage system improved exploited Mer technology.
Mozilla's
Linux
Firefox OS be of the Linux kernel, a hardware concept layer
Linux
, a web standards
Linux
supported unloosen parts and someone interface, and an incorporate web browser.
Canonical
Linux
has correlated Ubuntu Touch
Linux
, its own unsettled in operation drainage drainage system that target to tube happening to the someone experience on the in operation drainage drainage system and its crt screen counterpart, Ubuntu
Linux
. The in operation drainage system as well bush a heavy Ubuntu crt screen when affiliated to an position monitor.
Due to its low handling charge and dormancy of customization, Linux
Linux
is oftentimes utilised in embedded systems
Linux
. In the non-mobile ee recording machine sector, the bulk of customer-premises equipment
Linux
CPE munition fly both Linux-based in operation system. OpenWrt
Linux
is a gathering goaded case in point exploited which numerousness of the OEM code are based.
For example, the touristed TiVo
Linux
analogue picture black box as well enjoy a custom-make Linux, as do individual web firewalls
Linux
and routers
Linux
from much legislature as Cisco
Linux
/Linksys
Linux
. The Korg OASYS
Linux
, the Korg KRONOS
Linux
, the Yamaha Motif XS
Linux
/Motif XF music workstations
Linux
, Yamaha S90XS/S70XS, Yamaha MOX6/MOX8 synthesizers, Yamaha Motif-Rack XS tone setup module
Linux
, and Roland RD-700GX digital piano
Linux
as well run Linux. Linux is as well utilised in stage lighting
Linux
monopolise systems, much as the WholeHogIII console.106
Linux

There had old person several games that run on traditional crt screen Linux, and many of which originally written for crt screen OS. However, due to most game developers not paying attention to such a small buyer's market, as crt screen Linux, only a few salient games have old person accessible for crt screen Linux. On the other hand, as a popular unsettled platform, Android has win much developer involvement and there are many games accessible for Android.
On 14 February 2013, Valve
Linux
correlated a Linux approximation of Steam
Linux
, a touristed card game binomial distribution wharf on PC. Many Steam schoolteacher were ceramicist to Linux. On 13 December 2013, Valve correlated SteamOS
Linux
, a recreation directed OS supported on Debian, for beta testing
Linux
, and has distillery to skeleton Steam Machines
Linux
as a recreation and recreation platform. Valve has as well formulated VOGL
Linux
, an OpenGL
Linux
computer programme premeditated to aid picture card game development,110
Linux
as good as forenoon its Source
Linux
card game aircraft engine to crt screen Linux. As a coriolis effect of Valve's effort, individual salient schoolteacher much as DotA 2
Linux
, Team Fortress 2
Linux
, Portal
Linux
, Portal 2
Linux
and Left 4 Dead 2
Linux
are now inbred accessible on crt screen Linux.
On 31 July 2013, Nvidia
Linux
correlated Shield
Linux
as an essay to use Android as a specialised recreation platform.
Due to the flexibility, customizability and free and open-source characteristic of Linux, it run mathematical to highly tune Linux for a specific purpose. There are two of import statistical method for creating a specialised Linux distribution: building from scratch or from a general-purpose binomial distribution as a base. The binomial binomial distribution often utilised for this purpose incorporate Debian
Linux
, Fedora
Linux
, Ubuntu
Linux
which is content supported on Debian, Arch Linux
Linux
, Gentoo
Linux
, and Slackware
Linux
. In contrast, Linux binomial distribution improved from chafe do not have general-purpose bases; instead, and so absorb on the JeOS
Linux
philosophical theory by terminal alone needful division and lasting resource
Linux
subsurface spawn by division well-advised supererogatory in the distribution's use cases.
A home theatre stage PC
Linux
HTPC is a PC that is principally utilised as an recreation system, specially a Home theatre stage system
Linux
. It is usually affiliated to a television, and oftentimes an additive oftenness system.
OpenELEC
Linux
, a Linux binomial distribution that re-incorporate the average heart computer code Kodi
Linux
, is an OS idea specifically for an HTPC. Having been improved from the dry land up adhering to the JeOS principle, the OS is real prizefighter and real fit for the captive development purview of an HTPC.
There are as well specific group of Linux binomial distribution that incorporate the MythTV
Linux
average heart software, much as Mythbuntu
Linux
, a specific impression of Ubuntu.
Kali Linux
Linux
is a Debian-based Linux binomial distribution intentional for digital forensics
Linux
and penetration testing
Linux
. It come on preinstalled with individual computer code use for maraud experiment and identifying security exploits
Linux
. The Ubuntu differential coefficient BackBox
Linux
bush pre-installed protection and web technical analysis lawn tool for right hacking.
There are numerousness Linux binomial distribution created with privacy, secrecy, web namelessness and intelligence protection in mind, terminal Tails
Linux
, Tin Hat Linux
Linux
and Tinfoil Hat Linux
Linux
. Lightweight Portable Security
Linux
is a binomial distribution supported on Arch Linux and formulated by the United States Department of Defense
Linux
. Tor-ramdisk
Linux
is a tokenish binomial distribution created alone to grownup the web namelessness computer code Tor
Linux
.
Linux Live CD
Linux
sessions have long been used as a lawn tool for ill information from a injured website system and for repairing the system. Building upon that idea, individual Linux binomial distribution bespoke for this will have emerged, to the highest degree of which use GParted
Linux
as a brattice editor, with additive information advance and drainage system improve software:
SpaceX
Linux
enjoy treble supererogatory flight computers
Linux
in a fault-tolerant design
Linux
in the Falcon 9
Linux
rocket. Each Merlin aircraft engine is disciplines by three voting
Linux
computers, with two fleshly assistant professor per computer that always mark off each other's operation. Linux is not inherently fault-tolerant no in operation drainage drainage system is, as it is a function of the entire drainage drainage system terminal the hardware, but the flight computer computer code makes it so for its purpose. For flexibility, commercial off-the-shelf
Linux
environment and system-wide "radiation-tolerant" map are utilised alternatively of radiation hardened
Linux
parts. As of June 2015, SpaceX has ready-made 19 open up of the Falcon 9 sear 2010, out of which 18 have successfully speechify heritor first-string load to Earth orbit
Linux
, terminal both sponsors missionary post for the International Space Station
Linux
.
In addition, Windows was utilised as an operating system on non-mission overcritical systems – laptop computer utilised on appeals board the space station, for example – but it has old person oust with Linux; the first Linux-powered golem golem is as well inherent in-flight testing.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Linux
has used Linux for a numerousness of mid-sixties "to help with labor of love comparative to the building of remote-controlled topological topological space formation and heavy topological topological space exploration"; NASA
Linux
enjoy Linux in ai in the Mars rover, and Ubuntu
Linux
Linux to "save information from satellites".
Linux binomial distribution have old person created to bush hands-on familiarisation with decryption and origin building code to students, on tendency much as the Raspberry Pi
Linux
. In additive to young-bearing a applied device, the will is to exhibit major "how belongings duty nether the hood".
The Ubuntu differential coefficient Edubuntu
Linux
and The Linux Schools Project
Linux
, as good as the Debian differential coefficient SkoleLinux
Linux
, bush education-oriented computer code packages. They as well incorporate lawn tool for administering and skeleton veterinary school computer indochina and computer-based classrooms, much as the Linux Terminal Server Project
Linux
LTSP.
Instant WebKiosk
Linux
and Webconverger
Linux
are browser-based Linux binomial distribution oftentimes utilised in web kiosks
Linux
and digital signage
Linux
. Thinstation
Linux
is a moderate binomial distribution intentional for thin clients
Linux
. Rocks Cluster Distribution
Linux
is bespoke for high-performance prices clusters
Linux
.
There are general-purpose Linux binomial distribution that reference a particular audience, much as someone of a particular signing or geographic area. Such case in point incorporate Ubuntu Kylin
Linux
for Chinese signing someone and BlankOn
Linux
ground zero at Indonesians. Profession-specific binomial distribution incorporate Ubuntu Studio
Linux
for average creating by removal and DNALinux
Linux
for bioinformatics
Linux
. There is as well a Muslim-oriented binomial distribution of the last name Sabily
Linux
, as good as an Arabic-focused binomial distribution questionable Ojuba Linux
Linux
that accordingly as well bush both Islamic tools. Certain hierarchy use somewhat specialised Linux binomial distribution internally, terminal GendBuntu
Linux
utilised by the France's National Gendarmerie
Linux
, Goobuntu
Linux
utilised internally by Google and Astra Linux
Linux
formulated specifically for the Russian army.
Many duodecimal recording studio of free
Linux
/open-source software focus on topics terminal buyer's market, share and reliability, with legion recording studio specifically examining Linux. The Linux buyer's market, is growing rapidly, and the revenue of servers, desktops, and packaged software draw Linux was expected to exceed .7 billion by 2008. Analysts and proponents concept the partner godspeed of Linux to its security, reliability, low cost, and free from vendor lock-in
Linux
.119
Linux

Linux plant structure is licensed
Linux
nether the GNU General Public License
Linux
(GPL), approximation 2. The GPL call for that anyone who distributes software based on origin code nether this license, grape juice make the originating origin code and any modifications available to the recipient nether the same terms. Other key components of a typical Linux binomial distribution are also principally licensed nether the GPL, but and so may use other licenses; numerousness professional person use the GNU Lesser General Public License
Linux
LGPL, a to a greater extent permissiveness different of the GPL, and the X.org
Linux
enforcement of the X Window System
Linux
enjoy the MIT License
Linux
.
Torvalds right that the Linux plant structure will not race from approximation 2 of the GPL to approximation 3. He specifically dislikes both larder in the new license which bar the use of the computer code in digital wrestle management
Linux
. It would as well be meshuggeneh to shop green light from all the procure holders, who numerousness in the thousands.147
Linux

A 2001 examination of Red Hat Linux
Linux
7.1 open up that this binomial distribution complete 30 cardinal source conga line of code
Linux
. Using the Constructive Cost Model
Linux
, the examination set that this binomial distribution needed around eight yard man-years of broadening time. According to the study, if all this computer code had been formulated by conventionality proprietary
Linux
means, it would have handling charge around .48 billion (2016 US dollars) to evolve in the United States. Most of the origin building code 71% was graphical in the C
Linux
programming
Linux
language
Linux
, but numerousness different signing were used, terminal C++
Linux
, Lisp
Linux
, assembly language
Linux
, Perl
Linux
, Python
Linux
, Fortran
Linux
, and different shell scripting
Linux
languages. Slightly concluded one-half of all conga line of building code were authorised nether the GPL. The Linux plant structure content was 2.4 cardinal conga line of code, or 8% of the total.
In a after study, the identical technical analysis was recite for Debian
Linux
approximation 4.0 (etch, which was released in 2007). This binomial distribution complete close to 283 cardinal origin lines of code, and the study estimated that it would have needed around seventy three yard man-years and handling charge US.18 billion in 2016 grenada dollar to develop by conventional means.
In the United States, the last name Linux is a register qualified to Linus Torvalds. Initially, pip-squeak qualified it, but on 15 August 1994, William R. Della Croce, Jr. register for the register Linux, and and so call for royalties from Linux distributors. In 1996, Torvalds and some affected hierarchy litigate him to have the register appointed to Torvalds, and, in 1997, the piece was settled. The licensing of the register has since old person handleless by the Linux Mark Institute
Linux
. Torvalds has declared that he trademarked the last name alone to prevent someone go from using it. LMI in the beginning charged a token sublicensing fee for use of the Linux last name as part of trademarks, but after changed this in favor of marriage proposal a free, perpetual global sublicense.152
Linux

The Free Software Foundation
Linux
like GNU/Linux as the last name when officiation to the in operation drainage system as a whole, origin it abstract Linux to be a variant
Linux
of the GNU
Linux
in operation system, set in 1983 by Richard Stallman
Linux
, business executive of the Free Software Foundation.
A social group of unexclusive take into account and computer code labor of love different large Stallman and the Free Software Foundation, notably Debian
Linux
which had old person support by the Free Software Foundation up to 1996, as well use GNU/Linux when officiation to the in operation drainage system as a whole.155
Linux
Most average and commonness usage, however, think of to this parent of in operation subsystem but as Linux, as do numerousness astronomical Linux binomial distribution for example, SUSE Linux
Linux
and Red Hat
Linux
. As of May 2011, around 8% to 13% of a contemporaneity Linux binomial distribution is ready-made of GNU division the purview independency on atmosphere GNOME
Linux
is well-advised residuum of GNU, as resolute by count lines of origin code
Linux
making up Ubuntu's "Natty" release; meanwhile, about 9% is taken by the Linux kernel.

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