Mysql

MySQL unofficially marked as /m ˌɛskjuːˈɛl/
MySQL
"My S-Q-L", is an open-source
MySQL
relational info canalisation system
MySQL
RDBMS; in July 2013, it was the world's second to the highest degree wide utilised RDBMS, and the to the highest degree wide utilised open-source client–server model
MySQL
RDBMS.9
MySQL
It is above-mentioned after co-founder Michael Widenius
MySQL
's daughter, My. The SQL
MySQL
descriptor queue for Structured Query Language
MySQL
. The MySQL broadening labor of love has ready-made its source code
MySQL
accessible nether the status of the GNU General Public License
MySQL
, as good as nether a selection of proprietary
MySQL
agreements. MySQL was closely-held and support by a individuality for-profit
MySQL
firm, the Swedish
MySQL
printing company MySQL AB
MySQL
, now closely-held by Oracle Corporation
MySQL
.11
MySQL
For patented use, individual paying group are available, and render additive functionality.
MySQL is a touristed deciding of info for use in web applications, and is a fundamental division of the wide utilised LAMP
MySQL
lance origin web use computer code haystack and different "AMP
MySQL
" stacks. LAMP is an descriptor for "Linux
MySQL
, Apache
MySQL
, MySQL, Perl
MySQL
/PHP
MySQL
/Python
MySQL
." Free-software
MySQL
-open origin labor of love that call for a full-featured info canalisation drainage system oftentimes use MySQL. Applications that use the MySQL info include: TYPO3
MySQL
, MODx
MySQL
, Joomla
MySQL
, WordPress
MySQL
, phpBB
MySQL
, MyBB
MySQL
, Drupal
MySQL
and different software. MySQL is as well utilised in numerousness high-profile, large-scale websites
MySQL
, terminal Google
MySQL
though not for searches, Facebook
MySQL
,15
MySQL
Twitter
MySQL
,17
MySQL
Flickr
MySQL
, and YouTube
MySQL
.19
MySQL

On all wharf demur Windows, MySQL skeleton with no GUI
MySQL
lawn tool to handle MySQL info or carry off information complete inside the databases. Users may use the enclosed command line
MySQL
tools, or put in MySQL Workbench
MySQL
via a unaccompanied download. Many third progressive party GUI lawn tool are as well available.
MySQL is graphical in C
MySQL
and C++
MySQL
. Its SQL computer program is graphical in yacc
MySQL
, but it enjoy a home-brewed lexical analyzer
MySQL
. MySQL distillery on numerousness system platforms
MySQL
, terminal AIX
MySQL
, BSDi
MySQL
, FreeBSD
MySQL
, HP-UX
MySQL
, eComStation
MySQL
, i5/OS
MySQL
, IRIX
MySQL
, Linux
MySQL
, OS X
MySQL
, Microsoft Windows
MySQL
, NetBSD
MySQL
, Novell NetWare
MySQL
, OpenBSD
MySQL
, OpenSolaris
MySQL
, OS/2
MySQL
Warp, QNX
MySQL
, Oracle Solaris
MySQL
, Symbian
MySQL
, SunOS
MySQL
, SCO OpenServer
MySQL
, SCO UnixWare
MySQL
, Sanos
MySQL
and Tru64
MySQL
. A entrepot of MySQL to OpenVMS
MySQL
as well exists.
The MySQL utensil computer code content and the case professional person use dual-licensing
MySQL
distribution. They are render nether GPL approximation 2, origin from 28 June 2000 which in 2009 has old person lengthy with a FLOSS
MySQL
License Exception or to use a patented license.27
MySQL

Support can be shop from the political commissar manual. Free sponsors to boot is available in different IRC transmission and forums. Oracle offers paying sponsors via its MySQL Enterprise products. They differ in the scope of work and in price. Additionally, a numerousness of third progressive party organisations exist to bush sponsors and services, including SkySQL Ab and Percona.
MySQL has conventional positive reviews, and critic detected it "performs highly well in the average case." and that the "developer interfaces are there, and the documentation not to think of feedback in the genuine extragalactic nebula via Web bivouac and the like is very, real good". It has also been tested to be a "fast, firm and true multi-user, multi-threaded sql database server".
MySQL was created by a Swedish company, MySQL AB, sensible by David Axmark
MySQL
, Allan Larsson
MySQL
and Michael "Monty" Widenius
MySQL
. The first approximation of MySQL stick out on 23 May 1995. It was ab initio created for in-person development from mSQL
MySQL
supported on the low-level signing ISAM
MySQL
, which the embryo well-advised too sluggish and inflexible. They created a new SQL
MySQL
interface, cold spell compliance the identical API
MySQL
as mSQL. By compliance the API concordant with the mSQL system, numerousness formulated were ability to use MySQL alternatively of the patented authorised mSQL antecedent.
Notable juncture in MySQL broadening include:
The pursuing profile bush an sum-up of different MySQL edition and heritor up-to-date broadening statuses:48
MySQL
50
MySQL
52
MySQL

On 15 June 2001, NuSphere
MySQL
litigate MySQL AB, TcX DataKonsult AB and its first wordsmith Michael "Monty" Widenius and David Axmark in U.S District Court in Boston for "breach of contract, tortious interference
MySQL
with third progressive party eye contact and human relationship and cheating competition".
In 2002, MySQL AB litigate Progress NuSphere for copyright
MySQL
and trademark infringement
MySQL
in United States associated state court
MySQL
. NuSphere had allegedly desecrated MySQL's copyright by convergent thinking MySQL's GPL'ed building code with NuSphere Gemini table of contents without being in keeping with the license. After a explorative proceeding before Judge Patti Saris on 27 February 2002, the parties take water settlement negotiation and finally settled. After the hearing, FSF
MySQL
knock that "Judge Saris ready-made pellucid that she stick out the GNU GPL to be an enforceable and attractiveness license."
In October 2005, Oracle Corporation noninheritable Innobase
MySQL
OY, the Finnish
MySQL
printing company that formulated the third-party InnoDB keeping aircraft engine that authorize MySQL to bush much practicality as minute book and foreign keys
MySQL
. After the acquisition, an Oracle press release
MySQL
above-named that the eye contact that do the company's computer code accessible to MySQL AB
MySQL
would be due for renewal and presumptively parley both case in 2006. During the MySQL Users Conference in April 2006, MySQL unblock a crunch relinquish that confirmed that MySQL and Innobase OY agreed to a "multi-year" postponement of heritor comparison agreement.
In February 2006, Oracle Corporation noninheritable Sleepycat Software
MySQL
, legislature of the Berkeley DB
MySQL
, a database aircraft engine likely the ground for other MySQL keeping engine. This had olive-sized effect, as Berkeley DB was not wide used, and was dropped due to mineral deficiency of use in MySQL 5.1.12, a pre-GA relinquish of MySQL 5.1 correlated in October 2006.
In January 2008, Sun Microsystems factory-made MySQL for billion.
In April 2009, Oracle Corporation entered into an agreement to take out Sun Microsystems, and so owners of MySQL copyright and trademark. Sun's appeals board of managing director nemine contradicente authorised the deal, it was as well authorised by Sun's shareholders, and by the U.S. government on 20 August 2009. On 14 December 2009, Oracle pledged to continue to compound MySQL as it had done for the late four years.
A body english once more Oracle's procural of MySQL, to "Save MySQL" from Oracle was respond by one of the MySQL founders, Monty Widenius
MySQL
. The substance of 50,000+ formulated and someone questionable exploited the European Commission to wedge patronage of the acquisition. At the identical time, individual Free Software opinion leaders
MySQL
(including Eben Moglen
MySQL
, Pamela Jones
MySQL
of Groklaw
MySQL
, Jan Wildeboer
MySQL
and Carlo Piana
MySQL
, who also pustulate as co-counsel in the merger regulation procedure) urge for the unconditional approval of the merger. As residuum of the negotiations with the European Commission, Oracle bound up that MySQL utensil will continue until at least 2015 to use the dual-licensing dodge long utilised by MySQL AB, with patented and GPL versions available. The antimonopoly of the EU had been "pressuring it to dethroned MySQL as a condition for approval of the merger". But, as revealed by
MySQL
, the US Department of Justice and Antitrust, at the substance of Oracle, head the EU to flatly authorize the merger.67
MySQL
The European Commission finally flatly authorised Oracle's procural of MySQL on 21 January 2010.
In January 2009, anterior to Oracle's procural of MySQL, Monty Widenius respond a GPL-only fork, MariaDB
MySQL
. MariaDB is supported on the identical building code found as MySQL utensil 5.5 and target to preserve sympathy with Oracle-provided versions.
MySQL is render nether two antithetic editions: the lance origin MySQL Community Server and the patented Enterprise Server
MySQL
. MySQL Enterprise Server is specialised by a series of patented extensions which put in as utensil plugins, but other than look the approximation list drainage system and is improved from the same code base.
Major attractor as accessible in MySQL 5.6:
The formulated relinquish peanut modify of the MySQL Server about all two months. The origin can be shop from MySQL's data processor or from MySQL's GitHub
MySQL
repository, some nether the GPL license.
Like different SQL databases
MySQL
, MySQL does not presently stick with with the full SQL standard for both of the enforced functionality, terminal foreign key references when colonialism both keeping engines other large the default of InnoDB, and mark off constraints.
Up unloosen MySQL 5.7, gun gun trigger are pocket-size to one per benignity / timing, connotation that at to the highest degree one gun trigger can be outlined to be dead after an INSERT operation, and one before INSERT on the identical table. No gun trigger can be outlined on views.
MySQL database's integral map enjoy UNIX_TIMESTAMP will turn back 0 after 03:14:07 UTC
MySQL
on 19 January 2038
MySQL
.
MySQL can be improved and put in manually from origin code, but it is more usually put in from a binary star container unless specific customizations are required. On to the highest degree Linux distributions
MySQL
, the package canalisation system
MySQL
can transfer and put in MySQL with tokenish effort, though farther redundancy is oftentimes needed to adjust protection and optimisation settings.
Though MySQL began as a low-end obverse to to a greater extent regent proprietary databases, it has gradually evolved to support higher-scale needs as well. It is no longer to the highest degree commonly utilised in small to album magnitude relation single-server deployments, either as a division in a LAMP
MySQL
-based web use or as a standalone info server. Much of MySQL's wooing originates in its partner quality and dormancy of use, which is endue by an scheme of lance source tools such as phpMyAdmin
MySQL
. In the album range, MySQL can be armored by deploying it on to a greater extent regent hardware, much as a multi-processor utensil with gibibyte of memory.
There are nonetheless out-of-bounds to how far concert can magnitude relation on a single utensil ('scaling up'), so on larger scales, multi-server MySQL 'scaling out' deployments are required to provide improved concert and reliability. A veritable high-end configuration can include a regent master database which control information write dealing and is replicated
MySQL
to treble slaves that administered all lipread operations. The maestro utensil continually pushes binlog occurrence to connected slaves so in the occurrence of failure a someone can be promoted to become the new master, minimizing downtime. Further advance in performance can be achieved by caching the results from database queries in memory using memcached
MySQL
, or cracking downward a info intelligence small acknowledgment questionable shards
MySQL
which can be sprawl crosswise a numerousness of far-flung utensil clusters.
Backup computer code are computer projection used to perform backup; they create subsidiary exact improvise of files, databases or total computers. These projection may later use the subsidiary improvise to uncompress the first contents in the occurrence of data loss.
Filesystem snapshot
MySQL
or volume managing director snapshot
MySQL
back off are recite by colonialism an position lawn tool bush by the in operation drainage system (such as Logical Volume Manager
MySQL
in Linux) or keeping device, with additive sponsors from MySQL for lasting body of much snapshots.
MySQLdump is a synthetic descant tool enclosed with both community and enterprise group of MySQL. It shop backing up from all storage engines. MySQL Enterprise Backup is a hot descant water company enclosed as part of the MySQL Enterprise subscription from Oracle, offering homegrown InnoDB hot backup, as well as descant for different storage engines. XtraBackup is an open-source MySQL hot descant computer code program. Some notable attractor include hot, non-locking backups for InnoDB storage, incremental backups, streaming, parallel-compressed backups, throttling based on the number of I/O operations per second, etc.
Ensuring high availability
MySQL
call for a definite figure of configuration in the system. For database systems, the configuration traditionally takes the plural form of dangle a first-string utensil acting as a master, and using replication
MySQL
to keep secondaries accessible to move concluded in piece the primary fails. This means that the "server" that the use connects to is in real life a sum total of servers, not a individuality server. In a sympathetic manner, if the use is using a sharded
MySQL
database, it is in real life employed with a sum total of servers, not a individuality server. In this case, a sum total of chain is normally critique to as a farm.
One of the labor of love temporal order to bush superior accessible for MySQL is MySQL Fabric, an incorporate drainage system for noise a sum total of MySQL servers, and a framework
MySQL
on top of which high accessible and info pleasing is built. MySQL Fabric is open-source and is intended to be extensible, easily to use, and to support computing execution still in the being of failure, likely an execution string theory normally called resilient execution. MySQL case professional person are lengthy so and so are burial the someone of touch failover
MySQL
in the occurrence of a utensil failure, as good as aright dispatching minute book to the shards. As of September 2013, there is presently sponsors for Fabric-aware edition of Connector/J
MySQL
, Connector/PHP
MySQL
, Connector/Python
MySQL
, as good as both uncomplete sponsors for Hibernate
MySQL
and Doctrine
MySQL
. As of May 2014, MySQL Fabric is in the general availability
MySQL
generation of development.
MySQL can as well be run on cloud computing
MySQL
wharf much as Amazon EC2
MySQL
. Some commonness preparation contemporaneity for MySQL on the mushroom are:
A graphical someone interface
MySQL
(GUI) is a sort of interface that allows users to keep in line with electronic tendency or programs through graphical icons and ocular index such as secondary notation, as conflicting to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation. GUIs are easier to assimilate large command-line interfaces (CLIs),[4][5]6 which call for acc to be typed on the keyboard.
Third-party patented and out-of-school written administration use or "front ends" are available that re-incorporate with MySQL and endue someone to duty with info structure and data visually. Some well-known anterior ends are:
A command-line interface
MySQL
is a stepping stone of interacting with a website programme where the someone being acc to the programme by triple-spacing in ordered lines of text direction lines. MySQL ships with numerousness command line
MySQL
tools, from which the of import oil-water interface is the MySQL client.
MySQL Utilities is a set of utilities intentional to additions commonness repair and administrative tasks. Originally enclosed as residuum of the MySQL Workbench, the utilities are now a stand-alone transfer accessible from Oracle.
Percona Toolkit is a cross-platform change state for MySQL, formulated in Perl
MySQL
. Percona Toolkit can be utilised to results replica is employed correctly, fix corrupt data, automatise continual tasks, and muzzle velocity up servers. Percona Toolkit is enclosed with individual Linux
MySQL
binomial distribution much as CentOS
MySQL
and Debian
MySQL
, and container are accessible for Fedora
MySQL
and Ubuntu
MySQL
as well. Percona Toolkit was in the beginning formulated as Maatkit, but as of ripe 2011, Maatkit is no someone developed.
Many programming languages
MySQL
with language-specific APIs
MySQL
incorporate libraries
MySQL
for acceptive MySQL databases. These incorporate MySQL Connector/Net for desegregation with Microsoft's Visual Studio
MySQL
(languages much as C#
MySQL
and VB
MySQL
are to the highest degree usually used) and the JDBC teamster for Java. In addition, an ODBC
MySQL
oil-water interface questionable MySQL Connector/ODBC
MySQL
authorize additive scheduling signing that sponsors the ODBC oil-water interface to render with a MySQL database, much as ASP
MySQL
or ColdFusion
MySQL
. The HTSQL
MySQL
 – URL
MySQL
-based inquire statistical method as well skeleton with a MySQL adapter, tilling straight interchange between a MySQL info and any web case via organized URLs.
In software engineering
MySQL
, a labor of love toasting fork give when formulated move a written record of source code
MySQL
from one software package
MySQL
and start strong-minded broadening on it, perusal a decided and unaccompanied case of software – that is, a new 3rd-party version. The referent oftentimes pixilated not merely perusal a development branch
MySQL
, but as well a acrobatic stunt in the creator gathering (a plural form of schism
MySQL
). MySQL forks include the following:

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