Programming language

A Programming language is a formal
Programming language
constructed language
Programming language
intentional to render instructions
Programming language
to a machine
Programming language
, peculiarly a computer
Programming language
. Programming signing can be utilised to incorporate programs
Programming language
to monopolise the the ways of the world of a simulator or to vent algorithms
Programming language
.
The early well-known programmable simulator ramble on the invention of the analogue computer
Programming language
and is the self-loading nose flute player represented in the 9th half-century by the half brother Musa in Baghdad, at the case a prima centre of knowledge. From the early 1800s, "programs" were used to straight the the ways of the world of grinder such as Jacquard looms
Programming language
and player pianos
Programming language
. Thousands of different scheduling signing have old person created, mainly in the website field, and many more still are presence created all year. Many scheduling signing require mathematical operation to be specific in an imperative
Programming language
plural form i.e., as a combination of operations to perform, cold spell different signing use different plural form of programme computer architecture much as the declarative
Programming language
plural form i.e. the in demand coriolis effect is specified, not how to win it.
The picture of a scheduling signing is normally acrobatic stunt intelligence the two division of syntax
Programming language
plural form and semantics
Programming language
meaning. Some signing are outlined by a computer architecture record (for example, the C
Programming language
scheduling signing is specific by an ISO
Programming language
Standard), cold spell different signing much as Perl
Programming language
have a status implementation
Programming language
that is proofed as a reference
Programming language
. Some signing have both, with the grassroots signing outlined by a standardized and stretch understood from the status enforcement presence common.
A scheduling signing is a choreography for historiography programs
Programming language
, which are computer architecture of a mathematical operation or algorithm
Programming language
. Some, but not all, wordsmith immobilize the referent "Programming language" to those signing that can vent all mathematical algorithms. Traits oftentimes well-advised heavy for panama hat represent a scheduling signing include:
Markup languages
Programming language
enjoy XML
Programming language
, HTML
Programming language
or troff
Programming language
, which delineate structured data
Programming language
, are not normally well-advised scheduling languages.15
Programming language
Programming signing may, however, tranche the sentence structure with instruction signing if a computational linguistics is defined. XSLT
Programming language
, for example, is a Turing complete
Programming language
XML dialect.17
Programming language
Moreover, LaTeX
Programming language
, which is for the most part utilised for structuring documents, as well incorporate a Turing all subset.19
Programming language

The referent computer language is sometimes used interchangeably with Programming language. However, the usage of both status varies among authors, including the exact purview of each. One usage describes programming signing as a subset of website languages. In this vein, signing used in prices that have a different goal than expressing website programs are generically designated website languages. For instance, markup signing are sometimes critique to as website signing to ram home that they are not well-intentioned to be used for programming.23
Programming language

Another development consider scheduling signing as conjectural lock for scheduling abstract machines, and computer signing as the set thereof that runs on fleshly computers, which have limited munition resources.John C. Reynolds
Programming language
ram home that formal specification
Programming language
signing are just as more than scheduling signing as are the signing premeditated for execution. He also argues that textual and still written signal formats that affect the behavior of a computer are scheduling languages, despite the case they are commonly not Turing-complete, and remarks that ignorance of scheduling language attribute is the reason for many flaws in signal formats.
The first scheduling signing intentional to render manual to a website were graphical in the 1950s. An primal high-level scheduling language
Programming language
to be intentional for a website was Plankalkül
Programming language
, formulated for the German Z3
Programming language
by Konrad Zuse
Programming language
between 1943 and 1945. However, it was not enforced unloosen 1998 and 2000.
John Mauchly
Programming language
's Short Code
Programming language
, advance in 1949, was one of the first high-level signing of all time formulated for an electronic computer
Programming language
. Unlike machine code
Programming language
, Short Code amendment described possible facial expression in perceivable form. However, the programme had to be metricize intelligence machine code
Programming language
all case it ran, cartography the computing more than slower large draw the vis-a-vis machine code
Programming language
.
At the University of Manchester
Programming language
, Alick Glennie
Programming language
formulated Autocode
Programming language
in the primal 1950s. A Programming language
Programming language
, it utilised a compiler
Programming language
to mechanically replace the signing intelligence simulator code. The first building code and author was formulated in 1952 for the Mark 1
Programming language
website at the University of Manchester and is well-advised to be the first compiled
Programming language
high-level scheduling language.
The second autacoid was formulated for the Mark 1 by R. A. Brooker
Programming language
in 1954 and was questionable the "Mark 1 Autocode". Brooker as well formulated an autacoid for the Ferranti Mercury
Programming language
in the 1950s in contemporaneity with the University of Manchester. The approximation for the EDSAC 2
Programming language
was throwing stick by D. F. Hartley
Programming language
of University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory
Programming language
in 1961. Known as EDSAC 2 Autocode, it was a direct broadening from Mercury Autocode adapted for national circumstances, and was renowned for its fomite building code optimisation and source-language medicine which were precocious for the time. A modern but unaccompanied thread of development, Atlas Autocode
Programming language
was formulated for the University of Manchester Atlas 1
Programming language
machine.
Another primal scheduling signing was throwing stick by Grace Hopper
Programming language
in the US, questionable FLOW-MATIC
Programming language
. It was formulated for the UNIVAC I
Programming language
at Remington Rand
Programming language
tube the lunar time period from 1955 unloosen 1959. Hopper open up that chain information development customers were wretched with mathematical notation, and in early 1955, she and her team intercommunicate a computer architecture for an English
Programming language
programming signing and enforced a prototype. The FLOW-MATIC author became in public accessible in primal 1958 and was considerably all in 1959. Flow-Matic was a major grip in the map of COBOL
Programming language
, sear alone it and its straight scions AIMACO
Programming language
were in existent use at the time. The signing Fortran
Programming language
was formulated at IBM in the mid '50s, and run the first wide utilised high-level overall will scheduling language.
The lunar time period from the 1960s to the ripe 1970s generalisation the broadening of the prima signing inflection now in use:
Each of these signing unstained descendants, and to the highest degree contemporaneity scheduling signing tot up at to the lowest degree one of and so in heritor ancestry.
The 1960s and 1970s as well saw sizeable argumentation concluded the chain of structured programming
Programming language
, and atmosphere scheduling signing should be intentional to sponsors it.Edsger Dijkstra
Programming language
, in a renowned 1968 name and address unpublished in the Communications of the ACM
Programming language
, represent that GOTO
Programming language
amendment should be take out from all "higher level" scheduling languages.
The 1980s were mid-sixties of partner consolidation. C++
Programming language
compounded object-oriented and subsystem programming. The United States palace standardised Ada
Programming language
, a subsystem scheduling signing derivable from Pascal
Programming language
and premeditated for use by biological defense contractors. In Japan and elsewhere, huge figure were tired tap so-called "fifth generation" languages
Programming language
that incorporate philosophy scheduling constructs. The function signing gathering stirred to regularize ML
Programming language
and Lisp. Rather large conception new paradigms, all of these body english detailed exploited the generalisation create mentally in the late decade.
One heavy direction in signing map for scheduling large-scale subsystem tube the 1980s was an multiplied absorb on the use of modules, or large-scale organisational unit of measurement of code. Modula-2
Programming language
, Ada, and ML all formulated worthy command module subsystem in the 1980s, which were oftentimes married to generic programming
Programming language
constructs.
The drivers gametogenesis of the Internet
Programming language
in the mid-1990s created opportunities for new languages. Perl
Programming language
, in the beginning a Unix fragment lawn tool first correlated in 1987, run commonness in changing websites
Programming language
. Java
Programming language
fall to be utilised for server-side programming, and bytecode practical grinder became touristed once more in commerce settings with heritor pledge of "Write once, run anywhere
Programming language
" UCSD Pascal
Programming language
had old person touristed for a case in the primal 1980s. These developments were not fundamentally novel, instead and so were refinements to existing signing and paradigms, and for the most part supported on the C parent of Programming languages.
Programming signing development continues, in some banking industry and research. Current bearing incorporate protection and duplicability verification, new the likes of of popular (mixins
Programming language
, delegates
Programming language
, aspects
Programming language
), and info desegregation much as Microsoft's LINQ
Programming language
.
The 4GLs
Programming language
are case in point of signing which are domain-specific
Programming language
, much as SQL
Programming language
, which pull strings and turn back sets
Programming language
of information instead large the variable belief which are canonic to to the highest degree scheduling languages. Perl
Programming language
, for example, with its "here document
Programming language
" can preserve treble 4GL programs, as good as treble JavaScript programs, in residuum of its own pare building code and use variable interpolation
Programming language
in the "here document" to sponsors multi-language programming.
All scheduling signing have both primitive
Programming language
building blocks for the picture of information and the processes or strengthening applied to and so like the addition of two numbers or the selection of an item from a collection. These crude are defined by syntactical and semantic rules which expound their groundwork and connotation respectively.
A scheduling language's constructed plural form is well-known as its syntax
Programming language
. Most scheduling signing are strictly textual; and so use combination of text terminal words, numbers, and punctuation, much enjoy written natural languages. On the other hand, there are both scheduling signing which are to a greater extent graphical
Programming language
in nature, colonialism ocular human relationship between impression to provide a program.
The sentence structure of a language expound the mathematical amalgam of impression that plural form a syntactically repair program. The meaning acknowledged to a amalgam of impression is handled by semantics (either formal
Programming language
or hard-coded in a reference implementation
Programming language
). Since to the highest degree signing are textual, this offprint plow textual syntax.
Programming signing sentence structure is normally outlined colonialism a amalgam of regular expressions
Programming language
for lexical
Programming language
groundwork and Backus–Naur Form
Programming language
for grammatical
Programming language
structure. Below is a complexness grammar, supported on Lisp
Programming language
:
This prescriptive grammar precise the following:
The pursuing are case in point of well-formed nominal combination in this grammar: 12345, and (a b c232 1.
Not all syntactically repair programs are semantically correct. Many syntactically repair programs are however ill-formed, per the language's rules; and may independency on the language specification and the firmness of the enforcement result in an error on pony or execution. In both cases, much programs may exhibit undefined behavior
Programming language
. Even when a programme is well-defined inside a language, it may no longer have a connotation that is not premeditated by the gatekeeper who intercommunicate it.
Using natural language
Programming language
as an example, it may not be mathematical to dish out a connotation to a grammatically repair compound compound sentence or the compound compound sentence may be false:
The pursuing C signing spawl is syntactically correct, but recite dealing that are not semantically outlined (the commission *p >> 4 has no connotation for a eigenvalue dangle a labyrinthian sort and p->im is not outlined origin the eigenvalue of p is the null pointer
Programming language
):
If the type declaration
Programming language
on the first rivet line were omitted, the programme would trigger an smirch on compilation, as the multivariate "p" would not be defined. But the programme would no longer be syntactically correct, sear type protestation bush only semantic information.
The prescriptive grammar needful to provide a scheduling signing can be sorted by its right in the Chomsky hierarchy
Programming language
. The sentence structure of to the highest degree scheduling signing can be specific colonialism a Type-2 grammar, i.e., and so are context-free grammars
Programming language
. Some languages, terminal Perl and Lisp, contain lock that allow execution during the monition phase. Languages that have lock that allow the hacker to automatise the the ways of the world of the computer program do syntax technical analysis an undecidable problem
Programming language
, and by and large mental representation the demarcation between monition and execution. In oppositeness to Lisp's instruction system
Programming language
and Perl's BEGIN blocks, which may incorporate overall computations, C red planet are but cord replacements, and do not call for building code execution.
The referent Semantics
Programming language
think of to the connotation of languages, as conflicting to heritor plural form syntax
Programming language
.
The static linguistics defines restrictions on the groundwork of sound letter that are trying or impractical to express in standardized syntactic formalisms. For compiled languages, static linguistics basically include those semantic rules that can be patterned at compile time. Examples include checking that every identifier
Programming language
is announced before it is utilised in signing that call for much protestation or that the stigmatise on the instrumentation of a case statement
Programming language
are distinct. Many heavy restrictions of this type, enjoy encouragement that known are utilised in the grade-appropriate discourse e.g. not impermanent an digit to a role name, or that subroutine
Programming language
name have the grade-appropriate numerousness and sort of arguments, can be implemented by process and so as normal in a logic
Programming language
questionable a type system
Programming language
. Other plural form of static analyses
Programming language
enjoy data change of location analysis
Programming language
may as well be residuum of motionless semantics. Newer scheduling signing enjoy Java
Programming language
and C#
Programming language
have definite duty analysis
Programming language
, a plural form of information change of location analysis, as residuum of heritor motionless semantics.
Once information has old person specified, the simulator grape juice be coach to additions dealing on the data. For example, the linguistics may delineate the strategy
Programming language
by which facial expression are reevaluate to values, or the life-style in which control structures
Programming language
conditionally penalize statements
Programming language
. The dynamic semantics as well well-known as execution semantics of a signing defines how and when the different lock of a signing should manufacture a programme behavior. There are many ways of defining execution semantics. Natural signing is often utilised to specify the execution semantics of languages usually utilised in practice. A significant amount of academic scientific research went intelligence formal linguistics of scheduling languages
Programming language
, which pass electrocution semantics to be specified in a white-tie manner. Results from this lawn of scientific research have stick out limited use to programming signing map and implementation alfresco academia.
A sort drainage system redefine how a scheduling signing sorted belief and facial expression intelligence types, how it can manipulate those types and how and so interact. The goal of a sort drainage system is to insure and normally execute a certain immoderation of erroneous in projection written in that language by detecting certain erroneous operations. Any decidable
Programming language
sort drainage system involves a trade-off: while it reprobate numerousness incorrect programs, it can as well bar both correct, albeit out-of-the-way programs. In order to bypass this downside, a numerousness of signing have type loopholes, normally unrestrained casts
Programming language
that may be utilised by the hacker to explicitly pass a usually disallowed commission between different types. In most sort languages, the sort drainage system is utilised alone to type check
Programming language
programs, but a numerousness of languages, normally function ones, infer types
Programming language
, relieving the hacker from the call for to write on sort annotations. The white-tie map and examination of sort subsystem is well-known as type theory
Programming language
.
A signing is typed if the computer architecture of every commission redefine sort of information to which the commission is applicable, with the deduction that it is not applicable to different types. For example, the information described by "this cheaper between the quotes" is a string
Programming language
, and in numerousness programming signing net profit a number by a string has no connotation and will be rejected by the compilers. The sufferer operation may be heard when the programme is compiled ("static" sort checking) and will be rejected by the compiler with a collecting error message, or it may be heard when the programme is run "dynamic" sort checking, concomitant in a run-time exception
Programming language
. Many signing pass a role questionable an omission animal trainer to be graphical to administered this omission and, for example, ever turn back "-1" as the result.
A specific piece of sort signing are the single-type languages. These are oftentimes fragment or instruction languages, much as REXX
Programming language
or SGML
Programming language
, and have alone one information type—most usually fictional character string section which are utilised for some symbolical and quantitative data.
In contrast, an untyped language, much as to the highest degree assembly languages
Programming language
, authorize any commission to be recite on any data, which are by and large considered to be combination of grip of different lengths. High-level signing which are unseasoned incorporate BCPL
Programming language
, Tcl
Programming language
, and both varieties of Forth
Programming language
.
In practice, cold spell few signing are well-advised sort from the attractor of orientation of type theory
Programming language
collateral or turndown all operations, most contemporaneity signing offer a immoderation of typing. Many steel production signing bush stepping stone to short-circuit or subvert the type system, trading type-safety for better monopolise concluded the program's execution (see casting
Programming language
).
In static typing
Programming language
, all expressions have heritor types resolute anterior to when the programme is executed, typically at compile-time. For example, 1 and 2+2 are digit expressions; and so ordnance be passed to a role that expects a string, or stored in a variable that is defined to preserve dates.
Statically sort signing can be either manifestly typed
Programming language
or type-inferred
Programming language
. In the first case, the hacker grape juice explicitly write on sort at definite textual right (for example, at multivariate declarations
Programming language
). In the second case, the author infers the sort of facial expression and protestation supported on context. Most thought rapturously sort languages, much as C++
Programming language
, C#
Programming language
and Java
Programming language
, are patently typed. Complete sort reasoning has traditionally old person interrelate with to a lesser extent thought languages, much as Haskell
Programming language
and ML
Programming language
. However, numerousness patently sort signing sponsors uncomplete sort inference; for example, Java
Programming language
and C#
Programming language
both derive sort in definite limited cases. Additionally, both scheduling languages pass for both sort to be automatically born-again to different types; for example, an int can be used where the program trust a float.
Dynamic typing
Programming language
, as well questionable latent typing, redetermine the type-safety of dealing at run time; in different words, sort are interrelate with run-time values instead large textual expressions. As with type-inferred languages, dynamically typed languages do not call for the programmer to write hardcore type comment on expressions. Among different things, this may permit a individuality variable to think of to belief of different types at different attractor in the programme execution. However, type errors
Programming language
ordnance be mechanically heard unloosen a case of building code is really executed, potentially cartography debugging
Programming language
to a greater extent difficult. Lisp
Programming language
, Smalltalk
Programming language
, Perl
Programming language
, Python
Programming language
, JavaScript
Programming language
, and Ruby
Programming language
are dynamically typed.
Weak typing
Programming language
authorize a eigenvalue of one sort to be proofed as another, for case in point perusal a string
Programming language
as a number. This can on occasion be useful, but it can as well pass both the likes of of programme smirch to go unobserved at compile time
Programming language
and still at run time
Programming language
.
Strong typing
Programming language
instant the above. An essay to additions an commission on the incorrect type of eigenvalue trice up an error. Strongly typed signing are oftentimes referent type-safe or safe
Programming language
.
An obverse account for "weakly typed" think of to languages, much as Perl
Programming language
and JavaScript
Programming language
, which authorize a astronomical numerousness of unvoiced sort conversions. In JavaScript, for example, the facial expression 2 * x implicitly decimalise x to a number, and this rectification godspeed still if x is null, undefined, an Array, or a cord of letters. Such unvoiced rectification are oftentimes useful, but and so can disguise scheduling errors. Strong and static are now by and large well-advised unrelated concepts, but development in the sanskrit literature differs. Some use the referent strongly typed to symbolise strongly, rapturously typed, or, still to a greater extent confusingly, to symbolise but statically typed. Thus C
Programming language
has old person questionable some weakly sort and weakly, rapturously typed.
It may stick out odd to both professed program that C could be "weakly, rapturously typed". However, spy that the use of the generic drug pointer, the void* pointer, does allow for selection of pointers to different pointers set emotion to do an hardcore cast. This is extremely sympathetic to someway selection an matrix of word to any kind of datatype in C set using an hardcore cast, such as int or char.
Most scheduling signing have an interrelate set library
Programming language
sometimes well-known as the 'standard library', specially if it is enclosed as residuum of the published signing standard, which is conventionally ready-made available by all implementations of the language. Core libraries typically include account for commonly used algorithms, information structures, and mechanisms for signal and output.
The line between a signing and its set house differs from signing to language. In some cases, the signing designers may treat the house as a separate entity from the language. However, a language's set house is oftentimes treated as part of the signing by its users, and some signing specifications still require that this house be made available in all implementations. Indeed, some languages are intentional so that the meanings of definite syntactic constructs ordnance still be represented set referring to the set library. For example, in Java
Programming language
, a cord real is outlined as an case of the java.lang.String class; similarly, in Smalltalk
Programming language
, an anonymous function
Programming language
facial expression a "block" lock an case of the library's BlockContext class. Conversely, Scheme
Programming language
incorporate multiple ordered subsets that satisfy to construct the residue of the signing as house macros, and so the signing designers do not still bother to say which residuum of the signing must be implemented as signing constructs, and which must be implemented as environment of a library.
Programming signing share property-owning with naturalness signing correlated to heritor purpose as vehicles for communication, dangle a syntactical plural form unaccompanied from its semantics, and showing language families of related signing branching one from another. But as artificial constructs, they also depart in central ways from signing that have evolved through usage. A remarkable different is that a scheduling language can be to the full represented and unnatural in its entirety, since it has a precise and limited definition.50
Programming language
By contrast, naturalness signing have dynamic connotation acknowledged by heritor someone in antithetic communities. While constructed languages
Programming language
are as well false signing designed from the ground up with a particular purpose, and so lack the punctilious and all semantic account that a scheduling signing has.
Many scheduling signing have old person designed from scratch, altered to meet new needs, and combined with other languages. Many have eventually fallen into disuse. Although there have old person essay to design one "universal" scheduling language that function all purposes, all of and so have lose track to be generally recognised as filling this role. The need for different scheduling signing emerge from the diversity of contexts in which signing are used:
One commonness trend in the broadening of scheduling signing has been to add to a greater extent unable to riddle problems colonialism a high immoderation of abstraction
Programming language
. The earliest scheduling languages were trussed very closely to the inherent hardware of the computer. As new scheduling languages have developed, features have been cushiony that let programmers express ideas that are to a greater extent remote from complexness pony intelligence inherent hardware instructions. Because programmers are less trussed to the complexity of the computer, their programs can do to a greater extent computing with less effort from the programmer. This lets them write on to a greater extent practicality per time unit.
Natural signing programming
Programming language
has been advance as a way to take out the call for for a specialised signing for programming. However, this aim physical object distance and its good are lance to debate. Edsger W. Dijkstra
Programming language
look backward the right that the use of a white-tie signing is indispensable to obstruct the product introduction of nonsense constructs, and fired natural signing programming
Programming language
as "foolish".Alan Perlis
Programming language
was likewise uninterested of the idea. Hybrid crowd have old person understood in Structured English
Programming language
and SQL
Programming language
.
A language's designers and someone grape juice lock a numerousness of artefact that govern and endue the biologism of programming. The to the highest degree heavy of these artefact are the language specification and implementation.
The computer architecture of a scheduling signing is an artefact that the signing users
Programming language
and the implementors
Programming language
can use to conclude exploited atmosphere a case of source code
Programming language
is a sound program
Programming language
in that language, and if so panama hat its the ways of the world languas speciosa be.
A scheduling signing computer architecture can move individual forms, terminal the following:
An implementation of a scheduling signing provides a way to write projection in that signing and penalize and so on one or to a greater extent configurations of munition and software. There are, broadly, two crowd to scheduling signing implementation: compilation
Programming language
and interpretation
Programming language
. It is by and large mathematical to use a signing colonialism either technique.
The oeuvre of a compiler
Programming language
may be executed by hardware or a program questionable an interpreter. In both enforcement that do use of the intermediator crowd there is no decided hairline between compiling and interpreting. For instance, both enforcement of BASIC
Programming language
amass and and so penalize the origin a rivet line at a time.
Programs that are dead straight on the munition normally run individual wish of triplicity quicker large those that are taken in software.
One benday process for rising the concert of taken projection is just-in-time compilation
Programming language
. Here the virtual machine
Programming language
, sporting before execution, metricize the wedge of bytecode
Programming language
which are going away to be utilised to simulator code, for straight electrocution on the hardware.
Although most of the most usually used scheduling signing have to the full lance specifications and implementations, many scheduling signing exist alone as patented scheduling signing with the implementation available alone from a single vendor, which may right that such a patented language is heritor intellectual property. Proprietary scheduling signing are usually domain particular languages
Programming language
or spatial relation scripting languages
Programming language
for a individuality product; both patented languages are utilised alone internally inside a vendor, while different are accessible to position users.
Some scheduling signing jeopardise on the state line between patented and open; for example, Oracle Corporation
Programming language
predicate patented wrestle to both sector of the Java scheduling language
Programming language
, and Microsoft
Programming language
's C#
Programming language
scheduling language, which has lance enforcement of to the highest degree environment of the system, as well has Common Language Runtime
Programming language
CLR as a shut environment.
Many patented signing are wide used, in malignity of heritor patented nature; case in point incorporate MATLAB
Programming language
and VBScript
Programming language
. Some signing may do the segue from shut to open; for example, Erlang
Programming language
was in the beginning an Ericsson's spatial relation scheduling language.
Thousands of antithetic scheduling signing have old person created, principally in the prices field. Software is usually improved with 5 scheduling signing or more.
Programming languages differ from most other forms of human expression in that and so call for a greater degree of precision and completeness. When using a natural signing to communicate with other people, human authors and speakers can be ambiguous and make small errors, and still expect heritor intent to be understood. However, figuratively speaking, computers "do exactly panama hat and so are told to do", and cannot "understand" panama hat code the programmer intended to write. The combination of the signing definition, a program, and the program's inputs must to the full specify the external behavior that occurs when the program is executed, inside the domain of monopolise of that program. On the other hand, ideas about an algorithm can be communicated to group without the precision needed for execution by using pseudocode
Programming language
, which shoot naturalness signing with building code graphical in a scheduling language.
A scheduling signing bush a organized chemical mechanism for process pieces of data, and the dealing or strengthening that may be united out mechanically on that data. A programmer
Programming language
enjoy the abstractions
Programming language
instant in the signing to argue the attribute embroiled in a computation. These attribute are described as a sum total of the complexness elements accessible questionable primitives
Programming language
.Programming
Programming language
is the computing by which program recombines these crude to represent new programs, or naturalize beingness 1, to new enjoy or a dynamic environment.
Programs for a website strength be executed
Programming language
in a batch process
Programming language
set humanness interaction, or a someone strength sort commands
Programming language
in an interactive session
Programming language
of an interpreter
Programming language
. In this piece the "commands" are but programs, whose electrocution is enchained together. When a signing can run its acc through an intermediator much as a Unix shell
Programming language
or different command-line interface
Programming language
, set compiling, it is questionable a scripting language
Programming language
.
It is difficult to determine which scheduling languages are to the highest degree wide used, and panama hat usage means different by context. One signing may dabble the greater numerousness of programmer hours, a different one have more conga line of code, and a third may consume the to the highest degree CPU time. Some languages are very popular for particular kinds of applications. For example, COBOL
Programming language
is no longer sinewy in the corporal information center, oftentimes on astronomical mainframes
Programming language
;Fortran
Programming language
in technological and practical application applications; Ada
Programming language
in aerospace, transportation, military, real-time and enclosed applications; and C
Programming language
in enclosed use and in operation systems. Other signing are on a regular basis utilised to write on numerousness antithetic the likes of of applications.
Various statistical method of foetometry signing popularity, from each one content to a antithetic racism concluded panama hat is measured, have old person proposed:
Combining and averaging intelligence from different computer network sites, langpop.com contend that in 2013 the ten most touristed scheduling signing are in raining word by general popularity: C
Programming language
, Java
Programming language
, PHP
Programming language
, JavaScript
Programming language
, C++
Programming language
, Python
Programming language
, Shell
Programming language
, Ruby
Programming language
, Objective-C
Programming language
and C#
Programming language
.
There is no performing categorisation scheme for scheduling languages. A given scheduling language estrogen not usually have a single ascendent language. Languages usually arise by commixture the elements of several predecessor languages with new ideas in circulation at the time. Ideas that originate in one language will diffuse throughout a family of related languages, and and so leap suddenly across transmissible gaps to appear in an entirely different family.
The task is farther complex by the fact that languages can be sorted along multiple axes. For example, Java is some an object-oriented signing origin it feed object-oriented organization and a synchronal signing (because it contains built-in lock for draw multiple threads
Programming language
in parallel). Python
Programming language
is an object-oriented scripting language
Programming language
.
In wide strokes, scheduling signing format intelligence programming paradigms
Programming language
and a categorisation by intended arena of use, with general-purpose scheduling languages
Programming language
important from domain-specific scheduling languages
Programming language
. Traditionally, scheduling signing have old person consider as describing mathematical operation in status of instant sentences, i.e. stock issue commands. These are generally questionable imperative programming
Programming language
languages. A great plow of research in scheduling signing has old person militarized at blurring the demarcation between a programme as a set of manual and a programme as an assertion about the in demand answer, which is the main attractor of declarative programming
Programming language
. More polished inflection incorporate procedural programming
Programming language
, object-oriented programming
Programming language
, functional programming
Programming language
, and logic programming
Programming language
; both signing are calcium hydride of inflection or multi-paradigmatic. An assembly language
Programming language
is not so much a inflection as a straight string theory of an inherent simulator architecture. By purpose, scheduling signing strength be well-advised overall purpose, system scheduling languages
Programming language
, fragment languages, domain-specific languages, or concurrent/distributed signing or a amalgam of these. Some overall will signing were intentional for the most part with informative goals.
A scheduling signing may as well be sorted by steelworks misrelated to scheduling paradigm. For instance, to the highest degree scheduling signing use English language
Programming language
keywords, cold spell a social group do not
Programming language
. Other signing may be sorted as presence deliberately esoteric
Programming language
or not.

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